Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, February 23, 1855, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated February 23, 1855 Page 2
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lUccklii Sue gtcss. County Commissioner, Charles a. Seymour, Hurlinglon. For Council of Censors, David Fish, Jericho. liiJiatNOTON. FRIDAY, FEU. sTClSM. Wool nml Woollen'. Wo have no desire to seo Vermont u tast sheep pasture with etcry fiirm in it in creased to the maximum size, and the number of its inhabitants reduced to the small num ber which would suffice to take caru or the sheep supposing that sheep raising were to bo the great business of tho State. Hut wo have a desiro to sco that business, as fur as it is carried on, or ought to be carried on, in comparison with tho Tarlous other employ ments of our peoplo, put on a steady, rcmu tieratito basis. Doubtless Vermont is better adapted, considering her soil, climate and geographical position, to excel in the charac ter and abundance of her horses and her neat cattle, and in the products of the dairy than in sheep and wool. Yet she ranks high as u wool growing Btatc, and can rank higher if.hcr farmers can only liavo n fair chance in tho business. But can they hare a fair chance, if from any causes no matter what tho price of fino wool fluctuates incessantly ono year standing at '15 cents a lb tho next perhaps nt 60 cents for tho same quality then again nt 25 or even at 20 cents! Tho answer is n.idy from every one. "No, of courso not. This irregularity is death to tho business. It would be doath to any business" and so it would bo. If any ask Tor tho cause of such instability (for wo havo supposed only what has been tho rcuiity) tho answer is ready. Tho great can: of all lies in the. unstatdo and capricious character of L'nitcdStatcs legislation and especially in tho influeuco of the tariff of 1840, which in most important particulars was made prartically if not purposely, to injure tho great interests of labor in tho free States, by creating an ad vantage for the foreign manufacturer at tho uponso of our oicn. We do not bclicvo any othor government can bo named, that is guilty of such absurdity The consequence of euch a suicidal policy is seen in the extromo prostration of the woolen manufacture in this country. It is so noar its last gasp, that many of tho loudest praisem of tho policy which wo condomn, aro beginning to be disturbod ; and admit that if something is not done, tho woolon mills must stop entirely as to a great extent thoy have already done. Yes, tho woolen mills.will hae to stop, that is certain, if tho government continues to let foreign, cheap labor and foreign abundant capital cover tho backs of our entiro population with all the woolon cloth which they wear, on condition that it shall bo taxed an advalorem duty less in its nominal rate, and less yet as it is ap plied in practice, than what our own manu facturers must pay on the same foreign wool if they would manufacture it here. If wo raised the necessary wool in our own country, the case would be somewhat diffe rent. Then it would do to chock foreign wool by a roasonablo duty and to check foreign woolen mannfacturts by a reasonable duty also, liut wo do not raise the necessary wool: and the allowing foreign manufacturers to furnish us with the cloth mado wholly from foreign icool, while our manufacturers ure not allowed to get tho raw material ex cept under a duty which is substantially pro hibitory an tho case is, can never cause the iroof to be produced in this country. It can only destroy what wool growing there is. Our woolen manufacturers had a fair r.hanco under tho former tariff; but the tariff of lSlGgatc the foreign iimiiiilactunrs tho long end of tho lever. Every year they have been bearing down on it. They have seen their advantage ; and at this time they arc straining every effort to wholly over power tho manufacturers of this country. And tho work is nearly done and when it is donc-when tho woolen mills arc all fairly shut down, we would ask our wool growers, what thoy are going to do with their wool ' Who will buy it at any price Theymay then raise sheep for mutton, and wool enough fur domes tic stocking yarn, ard that will bo the extent of tho business. It is a settled thing that nothing will bo done this 6e'sion probably nothing under this administration, to restore to our own artitans tho fair chanco they onco had in a competition with tlioso of Europe, by railing tho duty on woolen cloth. A faint hope is yet loft that Congress may be induced to tako off the entire duly on icool. That I might suffice and doubtless would sufEco at least to stiraulato our manufacturers to ono mora vigorous trial. If with that aid.they can live, they then can buy at fair prices all the American icool which the farmer can raise for its qualities aro6uch that itisaW needed and thus tho wool grower can live aho. Otherwise ho must mako up his mind to die with the American manufacturer. Tlio proposition to take off the duty on wool meets tho approbation of wool growers extensively as a measure which, as things are, will help to sustain tho woolen manu facturers and thus to aid the wool-growers alto. Wo sco their assent to it is looked upon with great complacency by those whoso influenco has helped on the very mischief which is ruining both tho grower and tho worker, vii, tho ascendancy ot foreign manu facturers. They 6pcak of it as a concession to their opinions on free trade. We advocate it as a measure in perfect consistency with tho only protective doctrine which wo ever advocated viz, such an adjustment in the tariff as, when tho producing poiccr und tho manufacturing skill of tho country aro taken into the account, joined also with a regard to tho character and wants of tho manufactu ring laborers in this country and of those in a like employ abroad, shall do most to crcati' a diversified and steady home market for our own production1) both of the soil and oT tho . workshop so far as they can be used at home. The uruj of both will then find abundant uses in the way of exchango for thoso natural and artificial productions of other countries which are but little or not at all produced in oor own. Wo have not much hope that the present Congress will do any thing to help tho interests which aro now pressed so severely. Hut it will do no barm to ni.iko tho effort. We loarn that a petition from those concerned in tho wool growing busl ntss of this region, is forwarded to Washington this week. If anything which we can say will help tlirm, bo it ever so little, we shall bo glad. Our reader will find thu letter of Mr. Stone on this subject well worth a thorough reading. It is in our paper of to-day. Secret .Nomination, llunior siys that tho Council Convention Convocation, ur whatever it was of the Know Nothings held nt Northlield last week, sottled upon a statu ticket for Couneilof Censors, but who their nominoes aro is kept out of sight. Thereupon tho Orloans County Catette remarks very sensibly as follows. Why not make known whom they liavo nominated! If they havo selected 13 of tho best men in tho State, why not let the " ri6t of mankind" know who they nro, so that theymay havethoprivilcgoofvotiug for them if they choose to do so ! Should not tho peo. StTfo Ws' learning their views ujon tho various propo- fitions mooted for the actiou of the Council of Censors! Wo had supposed that In a re publican government, it was tho freeman n privllceo to inauiro into tho qualifications and merits of all candidates for office : and wo trust that privilege will not bo denied in this case. Wo confess wo had hopod, that tho elec tion of tho Council of Censors would not bo mado a party matter that good men would oo selected, without regoru to u.i-ir party predilections, But it appears that tho Know Nothings aro determined it shall be n pnrtl tan contest, unless nil nro willing to tako their candidates. Well, then, let us know who they aro, and if they aro fit and proper men, wo ask nothing morn ; wo don't euro a straw whether they nro of this or that party, liut wo nro sorry to sco n partisan spirit manifested in this election, for we think it wholly unnecessary and unwise. Wo havo frequently thought that tho old parties exhi bited too much of a set ere nnd proscriptivo party-spirit ; candid men hato long admitted and deplored this ; but wo fear that we aro to sco exhibited by this new party, a ranco. rous bitterness in this respect, that has not hitherto been equalled. Lectures by Ilishnp Hopkins We aro happy to inform tho public that Ilishop IIoi-ki.ns proposes to givo threo Leo Tints, the entiro proceeds of which will be applied to aid tho funds of h! Ladies Char ity School in Burlington. We hope that tho importance of the object to be thus aided, joined to tho inherent intonst of tho Lec tures themselves well insuro a largo atten dance Tho first lecturo will bo givon in Concert Hall, on Tuesday evening, Fob. 27th, at 74 1. M. Siiuect : The High! Administration of the Laics on the Subject of the JS'atutalitation of Foreigners. Tickets at 25 cents each lecture, will bo for sulo at tho Bookstores and at the door The Veto. Tho most noticeable event in Congress du ring tho past week, is tho President's veto or tho Hill for appropriating five millions of dol lars to pay off tho claims for French Spolia tions prior to ISOO. Its reception was tho occasion of some heat. Somo administration men could not refrain from expressions of disrespect lor it. On taking thu vote on tho question : shall tho French Spoliation bill pass, tho 1'rcsidcnt's objections notwith standing, there wero 112 ayes, and 77 nays. As two thirds wero required, tho teto was practically sustained. Tho veto is about four times as long, and for that reason not one fourth part as res pectablo, as rrosident Polk's voto of a bill for the samo object. Some of tho reasons given arc the 6amo os thoso of Mr. Polk. Great stress is laid on tho fact that no Presi dent has formally recommonded to Congress that thoso claims should bo paid a reason which is so absurd as to bo coutemptiblo. Mr. Pierce thinks also with Mr. Polk, that if the claims aro just, more ought to bo pud, and thcroforo ho objects to paying anything. One can hardly consider such a reason to be given seriously. Another reason gicn is that to pay thoso claims now would bo vir tually owning that tho government has been in fault a very long time, and for tho credit of tho concern, that ought not to bo admitted. That it has been in fault, tho ablest states men or all partios have admitted, times with out number. As most of the claims are for damages sus tained by merchants in tho Northern States, we take it that tho chief reason for tho veto is not stated, vii that it would bo a popu lar inoasuje attho South. Certainly no reason given will bear any candid examination. This strango conclusion is readied by tho President that neither France nor the United States are under any obligations to tho claimants whatever although tho facts are indisputable that France inflicted the dam ages on our cititeus, and that in 1803, for a specific sum, our goernment agreed with Franco to tako tho adjustment and settlement of them upon itself. Ten millions could fgircji to fitly SOmO wasto land of Santa Ana to gratify tho South, and Franklin Picrco could sco no objection : but to pay $5,000,000 to scttlo off $20,000, 000 of damages done to merchants ond ship- pcrsof theNorth, for which tho United States had received an equivalent in acquiring an immenso territory on our Southern and South Western border would never do. The Annunl Merling Of th' Champlain Valley Horticultural So ciety icas held at the American Hotel ys tcrday, the 20A instant, Hue! London, Esq., V. V. in tho chair. A report from tho Professor of Entomology, Mr. Thompson, also a communication from the I'rcsidont of tho standing Fruit Commit tee, Mr. Battcy, wero read and accepted. Tho officers of last year wero rc-electod with tho exception of secretary and Treasurer. W. C. liickok was chosen to thoso offices. Tho following named gentlemen wore added to tho list orVico Presidents. David Read, Colchester. S. E. Howard, Burlington. J. Torret, D. D. " Wu. II. IIoti, St. Albans. G. II. IlAitMGTo, South Hero. I. W. Bailey, Pittsburgh. II. II. Ross, 2d, Essex Co., Jf. V. Fruxcis L. Lee, Westport, N. Y. Somo very flno specimens of Landon's seed ing were exhibited by Mr. Landon, of South Hero, also somo beautiful specimens of the Northern Spy by Chaunoy Goodrich, or Burlington. .Ur. Thompson's Tteport. Mn. President: Holding as I do, one or the most honorable and tho most lucrative or the offices in the Champlain Valley Horticul tural Socioty, it is a sourco or much satisTac tion, that I urn permitted to present this my first Report. When I entered upon tho high duties or my office, littlo did I anticipate the troubles and difficulties, which its faithful dischargo would bring upon me. Littlo did I imagine at what an expense or labor and anxiety my honors were to bo purchased. Tiuo I had otten heard, that there is a bitter for every sweet a thorn for every rose and a pain fur every pleasure, in this evil world ; but theso sayings, I was disposed to regard rattier ns poetical figures, than sober retli tics. And when I was first informod of my election to tho Society's I'roressorship or En tomology, there aroso to my view in tho vi sions of tho futuro, only the bright halo of honor which was to encircle my head, and the delightful employment of chasing the gaudy-winged butterflies and the glittering humbugs or the air from flower to flower, through gardens, and lawns, and meadows; and then tho taFteful arrangement, upon long slender pins in neatly glaied cases, or theso beautiful lepidoptera, and shining colooptera nnd all the ovteias. Alas' how different this reality from thoso cherished and fond antici patious. My appointment was no sooner made, than the relation in which I stood to the tiny tribes, was buzied abroad among them, und thoy began to gather around mo Irom the four winds or heaven, Whether they came to honor mo aud court iny favor on iii-cuii nt of tho high office which I held, or to test my scientilio qualifications to admin istcr it, or to mako a general assault upon me as an enemy who was plotting their dcs. truction, was by no means apparent. Tlio first of tho insect races, to introduce lllcIUW,Te, to notice, in tho spring after ( , , ' ,, mJ orrintment wer0 the tlny Aphides, ' Those form ono of the most wonderful rami, I j;ca among tho ( insect tribes. It has been i 'f ;ted '""i"? (wl'0o great mind docs not regard tho littlo 1 a pbu at beneath its notice), that their me BURLINGTON F11EE tamorphosts is unliko that of most insects, and amounts to what ho calls a metagenesis, tho frail things appearing In somo of their stages protldcd with wings, nnd ot (parous, and, In others, without wings and bringing forth their young alive. The swelling buds upon tho shrubs nnd fruit trees, no sooner began to exhibit a shade or green, thun they wcro blackened by myriads or theeo little pests i and, nearly at tho samo timo, swarms of tiny caterpillars began to emerge from thoso bands or eggs, Which tho stupid moths, the previous fall, had so nicely agglutinated around tho small limbs of tho npplo trees, and these voracious now comers wero not long in entering into a disputo with tho Aphides for possession of tho buds. At length, in splto of tho ravages of these foes of our Society, tho leaves upon tho fruit treos, unfolded, tho blossoms opened and foil, and tho swelling drupes gavo pro mise ora plenteous harvest. Hut tho punc tures which appeared in tho surfaco of tho fruit, soon gavo intimation that an enemy was there that tho silent nnd sly curculios had commenced their work. And it was only by shaking theso pests from tho trees in tho cool of tho morning, upon blankets, (where tho deceitful things assumed the nppcarauco of dry buds, feigning themselves dead,) nnd then committing them to tho flames, or en tombing them in the drawers of my cabinet, that 1 was ablo to save even a scanty rem nant of my plums and cherries from destruc tion, Whllo those and many other species pre sented thcmselvos to my notice upon my trees and shrubs, many othois manifested them solves upen my vines and other tegetablcs. Among them was tho Stccl-bluo Flea beetle, I Initial chalybea. Theso appeared upon a portion of my grapovlnco, early in tho spring of two successive years, eating into tho buds and thus retarding tho leafing; and, when they disappeared, thoy wero succeeded by thoir little .caterpillar-larva;, by which tho leaves were soon riddled, and tho vines there by nearly deprived of their vitality, llut, whilo 1 was thus cut short of the fruit of tho vine, I was furnished with on excellent opportunity, (which I did not fail to im. prove,) of tracing tho history of an insect, which was not fully known oven to natural, j ists, through all tho stages of its metamor phosis. Dut it would bo too great a tax upon tho timo and patienco of this Socioty to present, on this occasion, tho dotails of my investiga tions, or even to montion all tho throngs of insects, which havo honored and injured mo by their attentions, sinco my appointmont. Among theso latter 1 might speak or the striped Cucumber bug, Galeruca iittata the Squash bug, Coreus triitii tho Onion, fly, .lnMomyi'a crparum aud tlio Applo trio borer, Sapcrda bnittata ; but I will only add respecting tho last mentioned, thai u ; n10 most arrant rascal of tho wholo brotherhood of rascally depredators. Itdoposits its eggs by stealth in tho night, and as soon ns hatch ed, tho larva) bury themselves in tlio wo?d, and remain there, eating out the lifo of the troe, till thoir metamorphosis is complcto ; and then emergo in tho night, in their beetle form, to deposit a new batch of eggs upon tho samo, or other trees. Tho opinion of this insect, here oxpressed, is founded on my ob servations of his doings among my own ap pletrocs, during the past two years. It is not impossiblo that other members of the Society, who aro not honored with tho officolhold, havo had tho attention of the insects I havo mentioned, to their annoyance, and mny Ar."t rnn to succcst means of pro- tection. All 1 can now say to such is, that when 1 shall find out an easier nnd Biircr way to savo our young troes and shrubs from tlio Aphides, than washing them with soap-suds our plums from tho curculios, ui.m ing them off and killing them our grape vines, cucumber and squash-vines, from the flea-bcctlo and striped bug, than crushing them betwoen tho fingors in tho cool of tho morning, when they begin to appear and our npplo-trecs from tho borer, than cutting them out or killing them with probes, I may perhaps inflict upon tho Society the pain of listening to another Report. Z. THOMPSON. Fob. 20, 1555. Ceil. Kcolt. The President of tho U. S. has approved tho bill for creating Cen. Scott, Lieutenant General or the Army. Tho bill as well as that or 1798 to which there is a reference, is given below. If military services could ctcr justify such an act, thoso of Gen. Scottdo so. Tho country will applaud it, as much as they dospisod tho attempts of his enemies to in jure him in 1847, by on effort to get a bill passed giving tho President tho power to ap. point a Lieut. General, with tho intent that a political partisan should be placed over the heads of both Scott and Taylor. General Scott is now an old man. Ho was bom in 17S6, and has been in tho service or bis country since 180$. Many a witling has made light or what General Winfield Scott has casually said. No enemy in thu field ever dared to think lightly orwhat ho under- took to do. His administrative powcrs.wbcre- over put to tho test, havo always been shown so bo or the highest order ; and ho is ac knowledged by all to bo one of the greatest captains of tho age. We do not believe his superior can bo named. The following incident is related concerning tho passage of this bill, Upon ascertaining the voto, Col. Preston drove to tho War Do. partment, where ho announced thojntelli genco to Scott. The General dropped his head for a moment, and tears were trickling down his chocks. His roply was worthy of his fame, nnd was precisely as follows "Lot no man say hereafter, that his country is un grateful to ono who has served her faith fully." A Resolution Authorising the President of tho United Sutes to confer the title of lieutenant general by brevet for eminent services Ktsohtd by the Smalt and Iloutt of Rrprmmalxltt tiftht Vnitfi Statu of America i Con frits attimhUd, that tho grade of lloutcnant-gcneral be, and tho same is hereby, rerived In the army of the United Mates, In order that when, in the opinion of the President and Senato, It shall bo deemed proper to acknovs ledge eminent services of a major-general of the army In ttie late war with Mexico, in tbo modo already provided for in subordinate grades, the grado of lieutenant-general maybe specially eon. ferred by brevet, and by brevet only, to tako rank from the date of such sorviee or sorvices I Vmxultd, fawner. That when the said gtade of lieutenant, general shall hare once been filled and have become vacant, this joint resolution shall thereafter expire and be of no efToot, Tho section of tho act of Congress which established tho grado of lieutenant general was passed on the tli ol .May, I, J3, ami is as follows, (FirthCongrcss, session 2, chapter 47 170fi) Sac. 5. .d bt ti funhtr matltd. That whenever the President shall deem it expedient, he is hereby empowered to appoint, by an! with tbe advice anil couscot of the fenate, a commander of tbe army which may be raised by virtue of this act, and who, being commlasioued as lieutenant-gtneral, may bo authorised to command tho armies of tho t'nitud btatus, and shall be entitled to the following pay and emoluments, tlx., fllO monthly pay, $VI monthly allowances for forage, when the samo shall not bo provided by the United i-tales, and folly rations per day, or money in lieu thereof at tbo current price who shall havo authority to appoint, from time to timo, such a number of aids, not exceeding four, and secretaries, not exooediug two, juoge proper, eacn to nave tho rank, pay and emoluments of a. lieutenant-colonel." Tho Moxican war transpired in tho tear 1817, and tbo pay or un officer with tho rank or lieutenant-general, as provided in tho act of 1798, from that date lo.tho present, would amount to moro than fifty thousand dollars, It will bo seen that there is attached to the grado of lieutenant-general a stuff of six ncrbons four lieutenant-colonels, and two I secretaries - each with tho rank nnd imy ul'n I lioutonant-coloncl Wash t'mou, leb.l l PHESS, FRIDAY The follow lug extracts nru from a pimphlct entitled, "A Letter to tho Wiol-groucrs of tho United Slates," written under tlato of Deo. 20, 185 1, by l)ald M. Stone, Esq. Under tho present tariff, foreign wool, in its natural stuto, pays a duty of 30 per cent., which Is the highest rato exacted upon nny woolen fabric whllo blankets uro admitted nt a duty of 20 per cent., or 10 per cent, less man tno raw material ui Hindi icv are composed, and flannels and baizes pay u duly Of only 25 percent This operates n 11 di rect bounty to the foreign fain Ic-iitit; nnd,iinder this system, even tho commonest tvnulen goods, which nro made by machinery, nnd icqiiirc no art in their production, nro largely imported. To remedy this evil, somo uiciiifici. of tho high tariff party hato picposed n largo In crease uf tho duty on manufactured goods, while that on tho raw material remains the same. Tho difficulties in tho way of such an increase nro so manifold, whilo its ndiniitnccs aro doubtful, and tho attendant mischiefs so manliest, Hint this project has been abandon ed. Tho only remaining correctivo is a re duction or total abolition, of the duty on the raw material. I would recommend the total repeal of tho duty, nnd that for the benefit of the wool-growers themselves. And first The effect of a duty upon the raw maleihl has been to encourage the impoi tation nf wal 111 a manufactured slate. This is entity illustrated by n simple Mute uicnt of tho imports of wool mid woolen ii to tho United Stales during tho last ten yea is, which 1 hiuecarcl'ully compiled from thcuti cial records ; Imports of I'orciEU Woo! 11 ml Woolen into the l.'nitcd Slntcs, Yoar M'ool Woolens ending Wool lu a mnnu'ac luicdshto. HA "5,001,000 70,001,000 TJ.'Ji'l.miO "s,0l)l,ll00 !)5,U!II,000 June 30, lbs. value. value. 1811, 11,004,109 S951,ir,0 $1I,I0S,27J IS 15, V3,3JJ,UI0 1.CS0.TUI 10,501,12 lblu, lC,j5S,S17 1,131,12V y,U3 j,y-J3 161", 4,ll!!,lW .JU,m 10,oW,ll3 laid, ll,3sl,129 657,03 1 13,00 ,1U2 lblll, 17,i!o'J,022 1.177.J17 13.J03.2'"2 IIO.OW.OOO lfeoll, lS.LWJUl l,t.8l,oDl lO.'.lUU.'Jlli UiO,(aJU,000 ll, 3,olS,lul J,oJJ,157 1'J,2JJ,'J30 70110,000 1S52, lS.-lll,'.!! 1,930,711 K.JlMol o?,u00,000 lSi3, 21,5'J0,O7'J 2,l(,;,718 S7,o21,'J21 ll'.'.uUO.UoO The first tlirco columns in tho ubovo nro from tho official returns; tho last is ettijia tid. Ihu Seirclary ol tlio Ireasury citi mates the wool imported in thu manufactured state, in tho ,car 1SJ3, at ll'J.UoO.UUU He,.; but 1 prefer to bo within the truth to uvjid the charge of exaggeration. U not lure n fair illustration ol the cllcct of thii tax 1 Unly twenty-one million pounds ol' wool im ported in its unc state, and ouu hundred and twelve millions pounds in a manufuclwed siate ' 1, iin i,ji all hxn ilui.mi.h turml within iur ! ird,rs,v. bat. inch,st our i.trui.'p, o i.i)ed lioni Hi. lro'lueu thus euiis-umed I lie ahnvo showi. tnu result of tho tax upon tho raw materia, in the in cour.igement given to the importation ot tho miinulactureU woolen,. When the tarid'uf 1&40 was islaldished, it' wus supposed that tho duty of l0 iir cent, ou foreign wool would lead to n largely in creased production in this country. 1 Mi hits not been icalizul ; tlio imruasu has been very slight, and tho ill'ect has hem to encourage thu importation ol foreign wool in a iniiiiu I'aetured state. And tins is ever tho working of a dutyou raw material-.. The ell'ect is not le disastrous, secondly, In the constant fluctuations in prices. i If tlio farmer were to obtain tho rage might 'KTUi&li.V:1' V.: is well kuoivu that the high rati are t-uldom paid to the producer tlio advuni-o being, in almost utery in-stanei-, lor the adv.iiilaa ol the speculator ; while the reaction is suveiely lelt by the wool-grower, in the c,mt,eiiient reduction in tnlue. After a period ot depres sion, while wool is offered at a very low late, the manufacturers find that they can woik it to advantage that is, can produce woolen labrics hum it to compete suceeffully with foreign guods. Tlio spindles and looms uro set at work, and, us thu demand increases, prices rapidly recover. If, at ihU moment, tlio manufacturer could bring in foreign ttuol duty free, the eil'jet would be, liut to prevent tin advance in vvuol, but to make that advance -..,!,, .1 r,.l ... L-r. !, ,.K.. ,,',, r, Uut, j, and abroad. With a t.uill of SO j percent, on foreign wool, hovvevir, tlio ad- vaneo here has no cfl'ect on the market abroad, until it reaches such a rate that our manu facturers can go abroad to buy. At that urn j mcnt, tbo foieigner it enabled nut only to ! Kd Ji.'liiU-Sluil.iV.'i'i itaW'lWW.iW'i'lt. M),H 1 the duty being fully coinpens ited f,:i- by 1 the similar charge upuu tbo raw miit.-rial I This excess of imported fabrics again breaks I dun null manufacturing, tlio demand fur wind ' deiliues.and prices droop to' their starting- point, llius, under tins slem, our luntiti. lacturcrs cannot llouiili unless wool is at a point vvlieiu thu wool-growers cannot afl'ird lo produce it. It is a constant see-saic : while one interest is in tlio ascendant, the other is inevitably declining. A system niu-t bo de vised under which both can prosper at the cme time, or tlio result mu't be disastrous to bcth. Supposo all tariff-charges un foreign vvojls were repealed to-morrow what would be thu immediate ell'ect upon prices' Would vuul decline hero' It is ulicady as low hero us in any market in the wurld. No ; tho mie tin given to manufacturing would inireiso tho demand here, and our m irkets would ad vance, llut this advance would not bo tho ruin of our manufacturers; foreign markets would go up steadily vv itli our own, we should buy wherever the raw mati-iial was tho cheapest and thus nn advitnco here would givo thu foreign fabricant no mlraii tngo over ii". Fur ct cry cent per pound ad ded to tbo cost of our wool would bo ml, led ulso to tho cost of his, aud thus tho Ameri can production would bo extended until wo could compete successfully with any woolen manufacturer on tho globe. Meantime, tiiis steady increase in our homo consumption of wool, with tho wido market constantly qrn ing for American fabric, would givo tiie do mesne wool-grower un uctivo demand, at tho best price thu world allurded, The tax on foreign wool, in its raw stale, does not prevent its introduction into the country, and 1 wish that our vvoul-giuvvcri" would lully realiie this truth. Tlio Secrit.iry ol' the Treasury sele down tbo coiiMimptiun or the lastjear in this country ut 2IH),OIUl,. 000 lbs., ol which 00,000,00(1 is raised in t ic country, 21,000,000 lbs. imported in its raw state, und 1 111,000,000 lbs. tmpartid in mm ufactui id fabrics ' Thus, tlio tariff has not kept tliu woul out, mid cannot keep it out ; but it has prevented it irviu being bruurht hero to bo manufactured. Tako otl'tho dn.v, and let the wliolo 110,1100,000 lbs. now iiii ported, or even the half of it, bo brought )Ut raw, and manufactured here, nnd who believes that tho 00,(100,000 now raised here would bring any less for this change ' U ho toes not believe it would bring muro than theai crago of tho last ten tears 1 What an im pulso would this establishment of homo man ufactures irivo to every branch of domestic industry, even to wool-growing itself, vhich would thus bate such a market at it. own dours ' The First Wooien Factory in the I'liited States is said to have been put in opuationut Hartford, Conn. The articles of airicment for it wero signed April 2S, lr-3- b ashing tun tins inaugurated President of tlo 1'nited States ina suit of cloth undo ther. Jubn Fenno's "Oaxette of the I'mled Situs,' t.f May 0, 17s'J, contains the following notice or it "Atirnic.tN MANtrvciiRF. I ho President of the United Slates on tho day of Ids inaug uration, nppcarid dressed in a complete suit of Homespun clutlns, but the cloth was of so fine a Fabric, and fo handsomely finished that it was universally mistaken lor n foreign manufactured supcrliiiti cloth. '1 hi fact, thn editor ho es, will apologize for his nut hat. tag mentioned in his last paper, a ciii'iiiii-stant-o which must be considered us not only flattering to our maniifaeliiri s in puilieiihtr, but interesting to our cuvnlrymeii in general. Hi Excellency, tbo Vieu" Presid, nt, ap penrod also in a suit of Aiiieii.-au iinuii., turc, and Hcicral members of both lluiises wero distinguished by the wuiio toktn ol at tention to tho m inulurtiiriiig inter, sis of their country I'hm thi. bright i:n, s -r.dunil'itl ,, ' Her empire prua l,y I, on who uich'd 11,. kies Preedom ard , tolepndei -e, tils and Vw, bbo.ll eruun Ihc scdnc, till 'i'uuvaitd .Vjiuiu cms." To onour-ige uui jttn m.inur..ctui t vwi felt to be a great duly of Anntieaii state' men in tho early times, Withiniii;, ii,,ur called statisme'i in i .e., i .it r il , i i thought to bo l-iter ti em uovig" t r i(,n workmen at the exin se ci. oui oen Wp don't believe in il. j In Netvburyport a child wusstiiollmv I in tho arms of its mother last Tuesday, vvbil" the family were enjoying a sb-igh in.. MORNING, FEBKUA11Y 23. 1855. ( oi' mr. inlKllu.n. The Nimvr t'niniviil In .Now Voile. Xr.w YonK.I'tb. 10, 1S33. We are snowed under, fairly buried in enow nnd cold weather weather colder limn vto linrc known here for years, nnd a tlirco days snow Hotm, which plied our strcils full nnd nlintit Hocked up all liav-cl. When mow falls a foe I or a font and a half deep, and then Isshnicllcd olf ftom the side-walk" on both sMcs Intu the cwii.ijrc way, you may Imag ine that II gits lo he riilhcr heaiyfor carriage , ... , ,, . ; 7: . , iiv. 17. nun wutro 111c croFBiiirs nre cm ncrnn. ti 1 It is very cnrluti lo notice the change effected In such n city by a fall of snow deep enough for sleigh Ing. All Hint roirof wheels nnd hoofs which desf ens ono nil day long. Is hushtd. One can stand In tho I'ark with tho stream i f vehicle" on all sides of htm, nnd talk to his neighbor without raising his voice, or even find his car gratified by 'ilio tintinnabulation that so musically wells from the jingling and tinkling of tho bells. Thcro aro cnrrlcgcs In the street, II Is true, hut the snow deadens thoir rattle and they arc but few, and the hoofs of tho horses and the clatter of pedestri ans falls noiselessly on the Eolt cushion, and the whole city has a hush, a resting apparently Irom tho wcarlsoino rattle which beats upon tho ear almost from one year's end to another ; and then one be comes awaro how much noise tho people contribute themselves, unless II is true that everybody shouts nnd more uproar when snnv is on the ground, and I think thcro Is something In that certain It Is that every one seems lo bo shouting then. The placo of the omnibuses In llroadnay Is sup plied by Immense sleighs with four, six, or eight hures, nnd (illid with people, scinctimcs carrying a hundred or so, all scats full, and all standing room occupl-d as well In tho sleighs as nil nroitud Iho edgo of them, whero often legs are broken, .to. by collis ions, llutovcryono seems determined to havo a slilgh-riJc, aud so they crowd into them at a ix pence a hecd. To me it seems a melancholy substi tuto for a sk-lgh-ridc, and 1 had rather walk nt nny tlmo than rldo in thoso big sltlghs. Ihcro has bun less aunovanco this year from tho practice of snow, balling tho etctgh-, thanks t Mayor Wood, but every now nnd then thcro is a notice lu the papers of si mo being knocked senseless cr having lb I r faces cut open by snow halls, llio sleighs cftcn have musio in them of some kind. I rcsolhct seeing ono with a little boy playing on aa accordion, an other on a tambourine, nnd both singing ; another had a hand oigan, but this was n prii.ilo convcv anio. Think of going on a sleigh rido wtlh a hand . organ accompaniment. At night, Uroalway Is wild with sleighs nnd pooplo everything lull In ov er llowlng. and c erhody shoutlug or sinfjing prbici I nil v l.-vro oivs " V.'jil for the w,ig',n," .l-.,la'l .-c-a-ixii.illy a n,t.-h fri ,r, an Cj.or.l, -r boating n tin pans nnd gcugs, und blowing tin horn-, or any. thing lo nuke n noise a real snon carnival. To tbo pjor, however, the saow comes unwclcomo. Their discomfort must bo largily increased by it. Vot it brings with it too, a good doal of work, for everyone must have his side-wnlk cleaned ou", or tho Major's complaint book will hare a record of his name, followid up by a fine. So after a snow stonu, tho streits arc filled with men and bo)s, each carrying a shovel, and ready to mm a few shillings by " nuking paths ' as I recollect wo mod to h ivc to do when nc wero boys, for which however, we did not got any shillings. It takes but a very few divs however for the snow to become nn unmitigated nuUnncc. Itncvir trncl. down nnd becomes hard In the sired. Thcie nro . . ......j ....wo ...i ,iiui, hiiu it nay. about el v inches deep of loo-o snow, whicli grows dirtier and more like ashes every day, nnd feels more and more uucomfortuble under tne's feet, until there comes a rain to wash it off, and then uch muddy work nswo have is enough to n ako one wish snow never tctl in tho city. Tho coll weather has Oiled tho rivers with ice, which n!mot stopped the ferry boats sometimes, nnd did somo damage to tho shipping, as it floated up and down with the ebb nnd flow of the tide, until by constant dashing ngnltist each other, to say nothing of tho gnawing and crunching wheels of steam boat, tho large piece of ice turned intosludgoand melted. I was interested to sic something i f the works of loo of the svine sort as Ilr. Knno describes of tho Polar ice, though on a very small scale Indcid. Tho for mation of it too which coull be easily seen in the dock', is S3 different from that of ficsh water. It forms in largo pieces thrie or four feet each vvay, (llr. Ka-ic sivs they aro five ided) which come to gether nnd unito until tho whole is covered, . " a, t!7c.ojoinii!g. This I tako to be what sailors cull pancalo ico." Yours, Ac. ALPHA. The Ihiglish C'nliinet. Tho followingMetter from our London Cor respondent, on the constitution of tho L'ng lish Cabinet, will be found specially interest ing at this timo. I.rltcr from Unglmid. NO. XVI. London, lcb. 2, 1S55. To the Frtt Prtit : Tho present Ministerial ciisis affords a fit ting opportunity for laying before your read ers some general account of tho English Cnb. inet. Ilcsides that there is now a special in terest fixed upon Ministerial organizations an interest which I suppose 1 may count upon as extending to ton there is another reason why tho time is it favorable one for our inquiry. In the sudden and rather awkward retreat of the lato Ministry, the Cabinet duurs wero thrown wide open, and thoso of us who are curious, have had an opportunity of peeping in upon tho machinery of tho .Ministerial eonclate. You mutt first of all understand that tho Cabinet is not tho J'riry Council. It is very true that tho members of the Cabinet aro al ways l'rity Councillors ; hut a Privy Coun cillor does not sit in the Cabinet unless be is specially summoned. It is true ulso that tho Privy Council is tlio only body recognized by law as the advisers of the Crown ; but in re ality tlio Government is entrusted to that se lect Committee of the Privy Council, which is known as the Ministry, tbo Gov eminent, or tlio King's Adv istrs, and the larger body is the Cabinet, as a body, littlo concerned in the Administration. I am afraid that some of our good republi cans in America, do uot quitonpprcciate tbe meaning o tho maxim of tho Knglish Gov. eminent that "tbe King can do no wrong." It seems to many to savor of div ino right, and so forth. I suppusc it simply means that tbo King himself cannot be impenched except through Iiis Ministers. They uro responsible ! for every mcasuro proceeding from the throne during thoir ministrv, ond may bo called to account fur their administration by Parlia ment. You will remember in the "Fortunes ofNigel," that when royal James mado a blunder in bis latin, poor Sir Mungo had to tako a flogging, If an executive blunder is made, it is supiosed to In- mado by and with tho advico and consent or the Ministers, and they must tako the flogging. That is all that is meant by tbo fiction that "tho King can do no wrong." In the earlier history or the English Mon. tireby, tho King's Privy Council consisted or all the great officers or State, and others whom tbo Kingmigbt summon, and by them every state mcasuro was debited and votid ou in tbo King's presence "It could not happen," 'ays Mr. Dallam, "but that some C.iiucillors iiioiu i mini ut than tho rest, should for. ii juntos and cabals fur nioro close ; and piit.ilii maiiigemeiit, or bo selected as mure adtincix of theiiSotirtign." ' This wan I lie germ of the Cabinet, ns disting ! iiisbed from tho Pritv Council. 'Ibis select I bnly ut liisl submitted their measures to the ! whole Council, but shortly iifiertbe limtuM tion, thoy begin to tako tlm government en ' llrcly into their own bands. One of the nr 1 deles nff-ttlimeiit demanded of William III that the old fiiue lions of llm Privy Council ' s'io ild lu i -si -re I. '.ii. i bis tuiitiotiH stales i,.,ns'i d N ill! ii t-uld not br.H.k si.r'i n diil'usi.iii uf i.iinist. ii il Must, nid tbo ani' b' w is re wi'od. ftiru-n thnt liut" tlio Privy I'oum il. tboUjj! a a l'dy always existing ' lulh In law and In lai t, bus been consulted only on iur, u , . i ms All orders and pro c'aiim'ioi'S, liowct. r, in-' iid issued in Ihtir nunc. Wo conic now to the Cabinet ns it exists nt tho present day. Tho L'ngllsh Cabinet is not n spoil Co inidunlforin list or Heads or Departments, Tho offices held by tho mem. bers or different cabinets havo varied consid erably, according lo tho emergencies of tho limes, or to suit tho plans or tlio principal ministers. For instance, until tho present war, there was In the Into Cabinet liu Secre taryship orStato Tor War separate: Troiii that 'ur me v-oioines, nut to moot the exigency r.. ,.,.. ... ... . tho two offices tvero separated, and havo been homo by different Ministers. L'vcry Cabinet includes tho fellowingofficers : Tho first Lord ol tho Treasury, tbo Lord Chancellor, the , Chancellor or Ilxchcqucr, and the threo Secre- t.irus of Stato fur tho Homo, Colonial, and foreign Departments. 1'rom threo lu eight other functionaries hato at different times ! been selected for their eminence and influence, I to sit in tho Cabinet. Sometimes, as in the I . . , ,. , . ,, , ,. , ,,. . i caso or Lord Curlislo in Larl Grey s Ministry, nnd tho Marquis of Lansdowno in Lord Ahordonn'a. n min ...I.a.a I.1..I. ...... .1.1 , .. , ., ,,uo. i.uiim mane Inm a great acquisition to the government, is J Mr. llocock, from tbo naval committee, re- intitcd to sit without any particular ofiicc. ported a bill rotiding for mm a efficient dis. Generally, however, In such a case, ho takes I J'l'1"10.1" "j0. ,'l lvy- . Ilo explained its prov is. l, . .a....i . '-i rr . ions. 1 lii! bill lirot Ides tliut s.iiluis eerving the somo vbnt nominal office of Lord Presi-1 cu tears, if laithlul, shall uceivo nn bon dent of tho Council, ns did Lord John litis- ! orablo discharge ; and nn re-enlisting w itbin sell in the Into Cabinet. As 1 havo before three months after bis disi bnrgo, on present intimated, tlio Cabinet sits In eonclatoi the! in thi' eertllieato ,.r lid.ditv and obedience, member, vvhn -, rn.'t.,.- . C",,llld ,0 ,nl1 1". during said three 1 ".'" nnnounccd! no record is kept ofits.'uecilno; its plans are often determined upon by the ! eiiict ministers, and kept secret even from their colleagues. The Primo Minister is First Lord of tbe Treasury, that Is, ho Is Head of the Depart ment which controls the Collection, expend!, tore and general management of the public revenue. Tho Chancellor of tbo Exchequer is tinder Treasurer, und the principal finance Minister or tho Crown. It is part of his bu siness to jircparo and bring before tho Com- mons, every year, the "budget" or scheme of I financial plans and estimates for the year. You must bear in mind that every Cabinet cuntains members of both Houses of Parlia ment, uot that they become so ex-oilieio ; but on account of the great desirableness ol hav ing representatives of the Government in both Houses, it is n I vviits so uoiitrited. Now ns nil hilts of supplies must originate in th.' I'mn iiiiuis, ho ( 'li.uieellor of tho vxiMiqucr is al ways a member of tho Lower House. When tho P rime Minister is a Commoner, ho gene rally seeks a scat in tbo Iluuso, and some times takes tho oflico of Chancellor of the Exchequer himself. We may note in passing, that a Prime Minister is by no means of ne cessity a Lord of Parliament, tho title of Lord of tho Treasury conveying no rauk of nobility to ono who holds the office. (Jf tbo fifteen Primo Ministers who havo held that office during tho present century, six or more liavo been Commoners. Tho second officer of tho Cabinet is t lie T I -I t " . - - -j i- styled tho "Keeper of the King's conscience," which I suppose sounds tcry strangely to tho cars of some, tn early limes the Chancellor or Chier Secretary or the Crown, was an eccle siastic, and the King's confesor : it was from this latter oflico that he derived that singular title. Tho Lord Chancellor is by virtue of his office, Lord Keeper of tho great seal, the principal adviser of the Crown in matters of law, nnd Speaker of the House or Lords. IT tho Lord Chancellor was not a Peer pre viously to his receiving that office, tho mo dern practice has always been to ruiso him to j tho peerage. It was in this way that lirotigbam became a Lord. The general character or tho duties be ! longing to tbo threo, or as tho lato Cabinet ! was modified, four Secretaryships or State, may be inferred from their titles. If you j.icse ihu io distinguish between the duties of tlio Secretary of State fur War, nnd thoso of the Secretary at War. I should l o ! filin to rofer yon to tlio Duke uf Mt II l,Cllt. iand Mr. Sidney Herbert, tho late Ministers in these two departments. Tho probability is that if these two gentlemen could compro mise tho matter satisfactorily to each other, they would come into collision with the Tirst Lord of tlio Admiralty nnd tlio Commander-in-chief or the forces, both civil officers and that the final adjustment of tho conflict ing claims could not bo mado beforo the i Greek Kalends. It is just this confusion I respecting tlio appropriate duties of kindred I hut independent departments, which lias led to tho overthrow of tbo Ministry, nnd if all the world is right, to tbo disastrous results in tho East. I might havo added to my account of the Privy Council, that it consists at present of nearly COO members, including all tbe emi nent statesmen of the Kingdom. They nro not attached to any particular got eminent, but remain in office during tbo pleasure of tho Crown. Thus much for a general outlioo of tho constitution of an English Cabinet. For the matter of news if it bo news to you suflico it to say that according tbo usual custom oT sending for tho leader of tho party opposed to tho lato ministry, tho Queen summoned Lord Derby immediately upon tho resigna tion of Abeideen and his colleagues. It is generally thought that Lord Derby cannot organizo a government under the circum stances, and that Lord Palmerston will next bo called upon. It is rumored that tho Queen is offended at tho courso taken by Lord John Uussell, nnd that fur this reason as well ns others, his chances for resuming tho ost winch ho vacated threo years ngo, aro not very favorable The Times is employing all its weight to favor Lord Palmerston nml in tiolent opposition to Lord John. When tho political sky is clear again, 1 shall hato more to say upon revolution. Your Chronicler, GRirrmi. run THE FHKE TRESS.) Chittenden Count)- Institute. Mn. ErnroR ;Xot seeing & representative of the Prtti at tbe celebration at Essex, Pch. 1 Ith, I send you a note of It. It was a very phasant en tertainment, though the attendance, (owing to the weather) was not as large as was expected. There were present 350 to 400 persons, ruito filling tho room where the exercises were held. The Exercises were .Musio from the Hand followed by a Pi aver, and rait followed by an Address from the Kev. Hub bard VYinslow, D. I)., of Doston, Subject i Europo. The Address was descriptivo of the speaker's jour. n.y iron, s ans, .urougn m.nyo. m. towns ami vi. .v. . u.., -.v v.,u..Uv..,, w..i.,i..u a very interesting account of at. rotor's and tic Va. tlcan. The discourse occupied something ever an hour and through tho nctioc of so rainy places of interest ( was necessarily short. Yet by very happily inter sperslng his remarks with anecdote and humor, tbe j speaker made tbe discourse one ot uncommon in. terest. Mr. WTnslow'a high reputation as a scholar, preacher, and writer, were to those who had beforo heard him, a sufficient guarantee that his subject, whatever it might 1-c, would be ally licatc 1 ai d Ihey were not ,lisapibinted. 'Iho gathering was In the I'pper llftll of lie, Clilltrndtn County Institute," an instltuliou in. corsiated in lsN3, The building ise-f brick, aboil M feet long by HI feet in wldlh ; two stoiics high. The style of building Is plain, yet good, and Iho in. lirnal airangtniciit willbcwhenciuplclid, ample, n il conven'eul. The object is oducitioual, ui-d t Ii inlcndid lo rank .,." than our print j,t m of" llih !s.'ho. 1," I" iS bePlieli ibe lli.h i-.l f-i I an I the l'.,!e,:,'. In thn low, r Hall ( the building Iho I.a li. lad prepare 1 a very bountiful tupr the tables of whieh w,-io tastefully di-curated with Yses of Pluweis andtluils and at I o'ctoek, P.M., tho entile audience adj. ullied fo'l-t the Inula above, In artakc of it, and vii'- fid' d it"'' I tables, on which it was sprral. liuring the eve-nlng, remarks were mado by various genllcmen, and the llan-i colli e-ncd Ihe tlrao vrllh music In their umal gnid tljle. 'Jhe Me dication of this Irstittilo mil tnliu rdaco soon, (tlicto exercises l.ilng to aid In iltefanpictiononlj ) nnd It Is lo ho hoped Hint mr Hutllngtonlnns wl ho prcent In larno nuiuhi rs. Wo nro confident they will ho mil nld for going. Hie object of tho Institution If tno tvhlch must command tho tym pittlif of your rtsdirs cent loll v, vis : Tho diffu sion of tisiful knowledge. Vtiy respectfully v ours, II. t'miKicoioiiiil, Waiiiivotov, I'eb. 13, IN SUN AT II. Mr, Muk reported a bill fiotn tho commit, ten on post offices nnd post roads, to enrrv out .the last annual recommendation of tho l'ust master (, ns to Ihu greiter security of tulinible litteis, by the Registry thereof. Hills were pascd m iking impropriations to contiuuo imblie buildinn in Orctron and Min nesota. 1'or tho construction ol military roids in these Terrlloiics. Iur n territorial r?'ul ,i" N1u,,,,!tl1' 'r l'r'"iJo "ciuminoda. tion lor the United Status Courts in Mary- UllUl nJ a ,.ost 0rK.0 ut unimoro. Adj. IIOUSIJ. ATl'llliS Or 1 11 H NAVY. months. Summary Courts-Martial may bo ordered on petty officers, nnd persons of inferior ra ting", who, on conviction of an offence, may be sentenced to nny one of the folluwnig pun ishments. Ilisrhurgo from service, with a liad conduct discharge ; rolitiuy confinement in irons, single nr double, on brctid and water or diiiiltiirhcd rations ; solitary confinement in irons, s'nilo or double the confinement not to exceed thirty days; sulit ry confine- IllPIlt 111 irons nil! i'loo.lirin lw montlie r- tltiction to next inferior rating; depritatiun of liberty on shnr". on fnreigh tntiou. Ex tra noli ec duties an I loss ol imy, nut to ex- iced three months niiiy be ndded to any of tlio ubiite-ineiitioncd punishments. .No sen tence ol a Court Martial to bo carried into ell'ect without the nppruvnl of tho officer or dering tho Court, tv ho shall have puvver to remit, in part or altogether, but not to com milts any sentence. Exception made in caso of sickness or injury to the health or the per sjn sentenced. Alter amendment, that sen fnce of ili'inissil shall not be carried into oll,..-t in n fnroi 'ii enuntrv, the bill was then pas' d - Mr. liocuel. reported the Smite bill, with the amendments to promuto the efficiency of the Nuty. It protidos that tho President shall summon a board of Natal officers to mako a careful examination into the efficien cy of officers, and report to tlio Secretary or the Navy the names and ranks or all officers ul said grades who shall bo incapable of per firming promptly and efficiently, their duty, both on shore and If tbo finding ho approved of by tho President, they shall I e placed in the order of their rank and seniority at the time, upon a list in tlio Navy llegistcr, to bo called the Ilcscnod List 'I hey are to receive lent e of absence or furlough p.iv. which they may be entitled h- I'''lfcJ. nnd shall bo in dirrib'- '.t her pruinotiun. I,, i.-ji oo suiycot to the order ot the .vuvy Department, nt all times, fur duty. The mi -eaiicics ere ited in the active service list by placing olficersou the rc-erted list, shall be tilled by regular promotion, in tlio order of rank or seniority. All officers who may be prumuted to fill t.icaneies, shall, while unem plovcd, rcceivo only leave of absence, or. waiting orders, tho jmy to which they would bate been entitled if such promotion had not i been made ; but when employed at sea, or on j other duty, they shall reeeiu; in addition, the Uiffereneo betttcin that and the sea or other duty rnv, of the irrade to which thevmay be ! promoted. this scrutiny and reservation of officers shall extend only to tbo grades of ciptntn, commander, lieu tenant, passed midshipmen and masters. Mr. liobock slid no opinion was better founded than that there ought to bo a tlior oiifn and scarcning retiirui lu tlio personnel ol the Nuty. Many officers uro now on thu list, w ho ought never to havo been placed there, drawing pay, without rendering scr tieo. There is something revolting in the idea of turning off old naval officers without tho means of siibsirtcneo, and this lull makes proii-iun fur them Hn inlverted to tlio vari ous abuses which the bill will comet, .unl rol.itid tbe fulluwiug as a case in unit An old captain, not lung since, called on the Secretary of the Naty, and said something abuut business, but" the Secretary did not know- him until lie tuld him Ids name, nnd the State from which he camo. He stid, hating bud nothing to do for .some time, be had been farming, but he came here semi-annually and drew leave of absence pay. Tho bill was passed by a voto of 110 to 4G against. House of Itrprcscntntiic. Feb. 11. Mr. Hunt, of La., reported tho bill from tho Cummitteo on Military Affairs, appro priating one hundred and twenty live tliou sind dollars Iur the purchase ol ii site fur tlio erection of military defences at the termina tion of the Mexican Gtilfllailway, Louisiana Passed. Mr. Murray, of N. ", from the Committee on Piiiitiug, reported a resolution, which was pissed, ordering the printing of one hun dred and twenty thuusand copies of tlio agri cultural part of tho report of the Commis sioner of Patents fur tlio use of the members of the lluuse, and ten thuusand fur the use of the Commissioner ; und also that thero bo printed twenty thousand copies of tlio me chanical part of the report, ono linlTof which to bo for tho use oT the members, and the other for tlio Commissi oner. A resolution was ulso passed providing for the printing uf ten thousand copies of Com modore Perry's, report of the Japan Ex edi tion, for the use uf the members of the House, and five buudred fur that of tho Commodore. A resolution was also passed to print ten thousind copies of tho surveys for a railroad to tho Pacific, including those of Col. Fre mont. Saturday, Feb. 17. SENATE. Mr. Toueey of Connecticut, from the Judi ciary Committee, introduced a bill to protect officers nnd ollieis acting under tho authority ol tho I'nitcd States. Mr. Stuart of Michigan opposed tho bill making appropriation Iur improvements in tho harhurson the Northern lukes. Mr. Hamlin of Maine, from the Oommittce on Commerce, reported a bill authorizing tiio Secretary of the Treasury to sell certain revo- nuo cutters and purchase others, i Mr. Jones of Iowa reported a bill allowing ottictrs ana soldieis ol tno revolution tviiose pensions are less than -100, amount hereafter. to havo that Mr. Hamlin of Maine wished tho bill to lie laid over till Monday, in order to proiide similarly, by amendment, for tho widows of tho deceased officers and solders. Mr. Sumner or Massachusetts presenter! a memoiial from citizens of Woncstir ngainst tho admission of moro slave States ; ulso ono from Philadelphia for the repeal of tho Fugi tive Slato net. Mr. Jones of Tcnnoisee offered a resolution which says that tho power to regulate emi gration never bating Pecn delegated to Con. ercs. tlio trotcrnmcnts of thosu states ufllicteil I with un influx or foreigners, possess tho sole power to mako laws regulating their udrais i 10n or exclusion I SEXATE. On motion, of Mr. Dawson, it was rcsolvjd that 20,000 copies or tbe Slate of the t'mon do procured iur tne use oi t ongress, itoutuin I ablo within the pi ico of $1 a copy. THE I'AdtIC HAlLROlp' ' On motion of Mr. (iwin, the providing for n railroad from tin, Mississippi Valley to tho j Pacific was taken up. Mr. Clay Ion wanted ta sec a communica tion bi'lvv. en the l'astein Stales nnd tbo Pacific, lot did nut Ulicic either road o.ulr.H'i'd in tl i hill could bo built. If built t o allei n.i lo sections of land would go to tbo i builders nnd nothing would ho lelt to main. lain the run, I oc, pt the Trvuuiy of tbo I'liited Mutes. 'Ihioiib travel and lieiglit will nut m port Iho road, and tin re is to way tuitil iireoiiseqiiei.eK. 'Ihe whole thing, S'i fir. is iui l.iciii-il.le. Mr. Builer agreed m linlv with Mr. Clay I..,, ; t..'s. heiow.,.. l;;'.exp.nslve.,, tl.a f h "ejuseway" leading to ill,! turf wei ii,.: vv. Il-inio'ined enough to ' ' , I i-airy it ' in Birmingham. Mr ( riev said, it is iupo.Hl to buill 1'omom', N II., Feb. lr SiDPr. Ibii'e r nds which will ivst hum tbre'e to IH.vTii ol lotion. linn Cyrus Barton, r.ur bun rl iiiilliniVH ol didbiis. I"w Kail- j cdltur ol Ibd uncord Importer, dropped dead roids now iisBiu.niinliv i I u.l I u tups ol iron, J from heart disease, yi-siirday alternoon, nt of whieh I'hl.illHI are minul.'"ui d in tho ' Inilf.pnst o'clock. Ilelmd just concluded I luted Mates. The roads now is eonstri.c- a jh cell ut a political meeting in .in adjoin turn will soon mako tbo amount consumed ing town, and was in tho act of taking bis uiinuiilly I J JKHl tons i'xclii6ito orthc roads i sent, when he Tell and expired. protected by this bill. Whcro is all this iron td conio from I Mr. Penrco opposed tho bill. He was as. tonlsbed at tho carne-slneM with which such an enormous project wos presented, Ho spoke of the difficulties o'f construction, tho unextinguished Indian titles, Ac.; and con. eluded that ho could nit toto for any of tho scht-iii". Mr. Husk tboiiPlho twelvo sections of land per mllo through deserts, nnd tho secu rity to bo taken for the work, mado Mr. Pearco'n argument nrpllcab'.e rntbor to con tractors than the Government. Mr. Ilutler pointed out ftirther difficulties), and Mr. Gwin replied, answering tho objec tions. Mr. Seward said bo never expected to bo hero udvncatitlng threo Itallroads, but so it was. The objections came too lato ; ho favored tbo proposed undertaking, nnd thought tlio country would never bo in better position than at present to undcrtako the enterprise, and that tlio advantages inci dental thereto would justify tbe undertaking. .Mr .Mason said that th.) malls and muniti ons of war would be transported over these roads. It would boa Government enterprise, and ho was astonished that tho Senators pos sessed so little information as to tbo con stiuclioior working of these roads, He could ticvv with satisfaction tho United States engaged in so ponderous work, and hopod provisions would bo mado to rcquiro the tirnrmfC.ils nf the contractors to bo report ed to Congress. He motod to amend tho bill to secure that object. , Messrs. Chase, Evens nnd Bell continued the discussion, when at a late hour tho bill passed by u vote of 21 against 21. ITI'.MS AT IIO.Mi: AM) AI1KOAD. I)ir.p Vt llaltlmore, Md., January 22, .Mrs. Marv C. GRtr-Nt, wife of WittlAM E. Mtviaw, Esq., aged 54 years. Mrs. Mayhew had a largo circle of friends in this placo to lament her loss. Tho Seminary for young ladies, began under her auspices" In Its conduct she showed great ability and energy. Tnovias Dwiek was brought up before Justice Ilollenbcck Monday, chargedjwith im peding Dep. Sheriff Reynolds in tho execution of bis official duties. Kcynolds attempted to arrest Dwier while in a state of Intoxication, whereupon Dwier struck Kcynolds and at tempted to choak him. Dwier was bound up in 200 bonds, nnd committed to jail. Eli TiitVKr., Esq,, the active man of the Emigrant Aid Association, -tith Messrs. E. I!. Whitman nnd Mr Ilranscorabe, gentle men concerned in tho samo important enter prize, give interesting lectures to tho people of Montpclicr on Wednesday and Thursday evenings of the present week. We expect to have a tisit from them hero before long. We had an intertiew with Mr. Branscombe a day or two sinco on tho subject. Their arrange, mcnts forbade their .i'iting us now.butthcy will do so soon. We shall aim to give a timely notice of their coming. A 0'nr.iT Tisik is to be had at tho last meeting of tho Wardsboro Lyceum on tho 22J inst. Erastus Plympton, Esq., is to de fend tbo Nebraska bill against all comers. Tlio light is to go on in turns of fifteen min utes each, till somo ono erics enough. "Sutbing will be don" now. Tbo Hon. Charles Durkeo, elected C. S. Senator from Wisconsin, by tho opponents of the Pierco ndmiuistration, is said to bo a native of tho town of Chelsea, Vt. Tho Orleans Co. Temperance Conven tion, on the 13th, nominated JohnW. Mutzy, Esq., of Coventry, for County Commissioner. Dr. llichmond who was first re-nominated, refused to serve again. Tho Woodttoek Mercury gives notice it will be transferred to tho hands of the Windsor Journal, nt the close of the present volnme. It will go into good hands. Mr. Hale will do well by his new customers. The Batpront) Inquirer goes into the charge of Henry J. Mcerve, Mr. Bowcn's continued ill health forces him to relinquish the caro or it Tlio general course and policy or tho paper is to remain unchanged. Tlio inhabitants oT Brattleboro village have accepted tho amendments to their char ter by tho last Legislature, allowing them to appoint a polico force. They voted also to get a fire engino and hose. All right. Burling, ton ought to have an additional Engine. The Boxer, Volunteer and Hero do well, but for so largo a territory wo need another. Another fire district would bo well too. Even St. Albans has formed one, and talks or hav ing an Engine. An Association called tho Kanzas Union ettlcment Company has been formed in Xew York City. It intends to tako up a tract forty miles square, to bo laid out in townships and farms, shares $5 each. " It is determined to keep the enterprise clear of speculators, and make it a home for tree men who own the soil they till." Information re specting it can be obtained by addressing (post paid) tho Secretary of tho Company, L. W. Densmoro, 293 Broadway, Now York Warrant Dsiep (or the arrest of Gov. Gardner. The Boston Journal states that a warrant was issued by tho Police Court on Friday morning for the arrest oT His Excel lency Henry J. Gardner, Governor or tho Commonwealth, and constable Tallant was charged with the service or tho same. Tho offence is for encumbering the sidewalk, or for neglecting to remove snow and ico therefrom, in front of his store at 99 Milk street. The Storw of last week did considera ble damage to tho rail roads Cist and South. In many places tho freshet was severe. On tho Maino Itailroad, at Andover and Wilming ton, there was some damago to the track, which however was speedily repaired. A bridgo in Haverhill, over Littlo Iliver, was also carried away. Spicket river, at Methuen, oterflowed tbo track ot the railroad to the depth of two feet, and tho road in some places was undermined, but tho rails were propped up ad tho trains passed over. Un the Essex j railroad, at .Vorth Andoter, the track was washed away, und a gully mado some 200 fret long and fifteen feet deep. Tbo Lowell nud Lawr'nco Itailroad was so badly washed, that travel was completely interrupted. Upon tho Vermont Central Railroad, the trains bad to contend with a fierce snow storm. Tho train which left Burlington on Thursday morning, was detained between Danbury and Andover on tbo Northern railroad, some thir teen hours by tho snow. The snow storm was ono or int.mso severity all along the lino or tho road. It was accompanied by a high wind. The train from Burlington via Rut land was not detained until it reached the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad, where a freight train was ofl tho track. The train remained at Ashburnham over night. Horn Pond, in Woburn, rosa four foot higher than ever beforo known by the 'oldest inhabitant.' At Lowull, South street and vicinity were inundated, and in Centrevillo canoes wero used to sUb from one street to another In New Haten tbo water flooded the railroad track in the skitiou-houso, dolaymg tho trains' i and the he'd uf the canal was rilled to overflow ing, deluging cellars and gardens along its route. The pile bridgo on tho New York road at West Haven was badly washed, but has be-in repaired. The Nougattio river rosa r nidlv. nn.l nt llerhcv thcro wero 5 feet

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