Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 1, 1861, Page 1

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 1, 1861 Page 1
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THE NEW WHOLE NO. 8911. MORNING YORK HERALD. EDITION-FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 1, 18(51. PRICE TWO CENTS. THE REVOLUTION. HIGHLY IMPORTANT FROM WASHINGTON, i . Debates in Congress on the Crisis. Expositions of the Massachusetts School, of Politics. Speeches of Mr. Seward and Charles Francis Adams. The Programme of the New Adminis tration Foreshadowed. THE SOUTHERN VIEW OF THE TROUBLE. Remarks of Senators Mason and Wigfall. Mr. Douglas' Opinions on the Con dition of the Country. Widening of the Breach Between the North and the South. The Surrender of Fort Samter to be Demanded. NORTH CAROLINA READY TD SECEDE. THE NEW YORK DEMOCRATIC STATE CONVENTION, kit} *c., *c., IMPORTANT FROM WASHINGTON. THE ULTIMATUM OP SOUTH CAROLINA. Washington, Jan. 31, 1861. Colonel Payne has boon engaged to day in preparing a letter to the President in regard to affairs at Charleston. Thin document will contain the ultimatum of South Caro lina, which ie understood to be the unconditional sur render of that fort to the authorities of South Carolina. Colonel H. had been instructed to mako this demand when he first arrived here, but was dissuaded by leading Sdfcthern men to withdraw it. Tho demand is now re Iterated in tho mo6t positive terms, and will be laid be fore the President to-morrow in Colonel Hayuo'a cuuimu nication. A rumor was very current this evening, that Fort Sumter had been assaulted and captured by the South Carolina troops, It could be traced to no reliable source. News of such an event, however, would not any moment create unusual surprise hore. The plan of attack, as divulged, U to dismantle schooners and convert them into floats, load them with cotton bales, and, the vessels being towed under the walls ef the fort, the cotton bags are to be piled one upon another until a suffi cient height is reached to enable tho scaling parties in multitudes to ascend the walls. It is believed that the fort can be taken by this process at less sacrifice of life than by any other means. The friends of the Union are much discouraged by the i>ews from 1'ensacola and Charleston. A collision Is im minent, and the fear is It has already occurred. Onoe began, it is idle to talk of compromise. Whatever may have been the criminal folly that prompted the attack, the appalling consequences are to precipitate at once all the central slove States into the vortex of revolution. Whatsoever may have been the outrage perpetrated, they can never permit federal troops to avenge the fate ef their comrades without themselves becoming partners in the melee. The policy now talked of among leading Union men is to call on the President to evacuate Fort Sumter and Fort Pickens, and thus remove all opportunity for the seoed taig States inaugurating civil war, and ca -6 jff the central States with them. This course will save the Union, as it is now certain that none of these States can be voted out except by the application of some such un natural stimulus as a fight at the South between State and federal troops. The President Is known to be opposed to the with drawal <f the troops, but the representations that will be made to him by many true men at the South, and to avoid civil war, It Is thought by many he may be ,nduced to do II. THE RELATIONS OF 8ECEDING STATES WITH FQREIGN POWERS. WAmxGTO*, Jan. 31,1841. It appear? from an official source that on the 27th of January Mr. Schleiden wrote to Secretary of State RUclc, informing htm that he had received a letter from the Kremon Consulate at Charleston, stating that the con p.enee of the Capornicus had tendered the duties at the Custom House, which were refuse*!; and from this the Consul Infers thU tha functionaries there are no longer acting for us. The Minister, therefore, asks bow the firemen captains and consignees of goods imported from Bremen In Bremen vessels and the ports of South Caroli na are to act in order to avoid all violations of the reve nue laws of tbo United States* Does the government hold itself responsible t ifthe owners of goods now stored or which maj hereafter be placed in United States bonded warehouses at (fcarlrston? And in case of a discontinu ance of the United States Custom House at Charleston, will Bremen vessels be permitted to proceed hence on the voyaje without hmdranoc on the part of the United States iuthoritles? Mr. Schleiden also complains, January 8, that the lights in the Charleston harbor hare been extinguished. Iiird Lyons, December 31, acquaints Secretary Black that he has received a letter from the British Consul at Charleston, In which It Is stated that South Carolina has passed an ordinance declaring. In effect, that tho Cistom Houses of the United Stajgs in South Carolina are coo verted into Custom Hous^Pw that State; and the revenue laws adopted show how the duties are to be collected on the account of that State. The Consul calls attention Ao several practical difficulties wnneotod with the entry and clearance of British vessels, which may arrive at any moment. Lord Lyons requests the government to furnish him, without delay, such information respecting Its wlshe* and intentions as may enable hltn to give definite lnstruc tior.s U> the Oroful, and to remove any apprehension which may enlst that the abolition of the d> fartn United States Custom Houses will be allowed to subject British vefwels for commerce to loss, Injury or inconvenience. The Secretary is informed by Ix>rd Lyons that the South Carolina authorities have removed the buoys, withdrawn the light ship, Ac., and requests that the lights and beacons be replaced, or soma moan* a lopted to warn vessels of their danKer; ^nd, In conclusion, de sires such Information as will allay the anilcty of British subjects. Mr Tn?sara, the Spanish Minister. December 31, call" Pecretarr Blick's attention to a letter from the Spanish Consul st Charleston, relative to the customs matter at that city. /moeg the documents is a letter from Judge Magratb. dated Ktecntivs lHpartircnt. saying the activity of the pilots w ll prevent any serious injury or inccmven.ence to commerce. ' <m the ^1- it?t. Secretary Floyd rep; it d to loril tyoc* mad sent ft copy his letter to Messrs Schielden jp.1 >?? .'!? *< ' be 'I ? emre-tnl'-a in "efor- the freiida.t who w. . deeply regret that v-: r r- ????< V ' .'T'-nto the err re* "f f'rt.?-n or ?>,t, t i y to Jv '-ahii ^ect? at Charleston should sutler by the anomalous state of things dieting there. Secretary Black quoUn frurn tho law to show that the jurisdiction of the federal govern inent to impose duties on goods imported into the United States and collect the is exclusive. Whether tho state of things now existing at Charleston will or will not be regarded as a sutficieat reason for not executing the penalties incurred by the British subjects, is a question lord Lyons will set- no necessity for raising until it practically arises. Kach case will no doubt have its pe culiarities. Secretary Black regrets that this considera tion compels h'm to decline giving any assurances on the point presented. The Treasury Department, he says, will give public information as to the condition in which South Carolina hns put the coast. THE PLOT AGAINST THE CAPITAL. Washington, Jan. 31,1861. There is no doubt about another difference of opinion occurring between the President and Gen. Soott. (Jen. Scott is altogether too fast for the (executive. He is de sirous oi concentrating a large force in this city, and promptly reinforcing the Southern forts; but the Presi dent has adopted the ftdinaUnle policy, and has coun termanded several orders given by Men. Scott. Tbe General Is also in favor of Inviting the Seventh regiment of New York to come here, but on this proposi tion the President has put his veto. Gen. Soott has told Mr. Buchanan that be has not enough troops here to defend it against ? a mob of our own cituens. General Scott may have good reason to feel concerned about the safety of the capital, but it is not unlikely his Informants are actuated more by their fears than tbeir judgment in forw;vrding him intelligence of the move ments of the malcontents. General Scott has been cllod to appear before the Committee of Five on Apprehended Troubles. He may throw pome light on the subject, none having been emitted by the examination of other wit nesses thus far. Gen. Scott was before the committe who arc investi. gating matters relative to the alledged conspiracy to seize this city, and was examined at great length. Ho produced a large number of anonymous aud other let ters, from sources which Justified him, in the opinion of the committee, in taking the course he has, although there may not be a particle of real foundation for the reports. Not a sintllla of evidence, however, has thus been ad duced that such conspiracy exists here or elsewhere. There is no danger of any trouble in this city or of its ptacc being disturbed, except In one event. Should Vir ginia and Maryland join the cotton and Gulf states, and secede from the Union, the people in these States never would permit the capital to remain in tho hands of the republicans. Of this the republicans have been re peatedly informed, and of this fact the committee aro aware. I have tho best authority for asserting that among the highesi adml]||ptrativc ofllcers of the government, as woll as among the military, alarm is felt for tho immediate safety of the capital, and those who have the best right to do so express themselves astonished that the Presi dent cannot be brought a realizing sense ef tho existing dangers. A Cabinet ofiicer stated to-ilay that itj|Virginia should decide to go out of the Union on the 4th of February, a raiil would be immediately made upon this city by the Virginia forces, and he saw no way that it could be defended except by an Immediate call upon tho loyal States for volunteers. So impressed were the gentlemen who listened to three startling declara tions, although they were conservative men, that they wrote immediately to the Governor of their State reoom mending niui to iiu> r<>r??a in readiness to answer a requisition at a moment's warning. There is no disputing the fact that we are in the midst of perilous times. WAWiiMiTOX, Jan. 31,1861. This hr.s been a field day in the Senate, Mosws Howard. Muson, Douglas, Hale and Wigfall. figuring conspicuously, as the debate will show. The debate in the Senate to day betwoen Senators Seward and Mason, of Virginia, on the presentation of the petition of New York merchants, is regarded by the more moderate mon of the South and North?who are anxious to bring about a speedy and amicable adjustment of political differences?as most unfortunate. It will bare an injurious effect, and will precipitate the action, of the Convention which meets at Richmond on Monday neit. Mr. Mason, by an adroit and cunningly de vised interrogatory, drew out an admission from Mr. Seward that when all other means fail to preserve tho union of the State*, it was his policy, as well as the policy of the republican party, to do fo by the sword. In other words, a coercion policy is to be adopted by the incoming administration. In the House tbe Deficiency bill was laid aaide to give Mr. Adams, of Massachusetts, an opportunity to respond to the many appeals that have be?n made to him. from Southern gentlemen, to express his views on the pre3?nt condition of the country. Southern members, with few exceptions, gathered over toward the republican side, In the centre of which Mr. Adams stood, and some of the extreme Southern fire eaters were attracted so im perceptibly towards him that they actually found themselves occupying the seats of the black re publicans. Tbe galleries were crowded with ladies and gentlemen, who listened with breathless attention. Shortly after Mr. Adam? commenced, Edward JCverett was escorted to a scat near the former, on the republican side of the Houae, by Mr. Burlingame. Ex Governor Clifford, of Massachusetts, was invited to a seat on tho south side of the House by Mr. Maynard, of Tonnes see. Mr. Richardson, M. C. elect, of Illinois, was on the floor of the House under escort of Mr. Davidson, of Louisiana. Near Mr. Adams, occupying members'scats, were Robert C Wtnthrop.of Masaachu setts. Caseins M. Clay, or Kentucky, and Ceorge G Fogg, of New Hampshire, Secretary of the National Republican Committee. When Mr. Adams concluded nearly all the republican members and several of the South Americans arose and congratulated turn. After tho crowd left Mr Everett approached Mr Adams ank took him very cordially by the hand, thanked him for his speech, and said he could endorse very nearly ih? whole of It. Mr. Adam<<' expression, that tbe " proposition of the Committeo of Thirty three is .1 fair one," and that be is willing to accedo to whatever in reason will be agreed upon by the border Slates, is I taken as a generous and Statesmanlike offer Ij.on 1 the basis of tbe border States proposition, or pledge, tbe one submitted by Mr. Adams in the Commit tee of Thirty-three, the country can rest as surod that Mr. Adams bas not cut himself aloof from all bis radical friends in New England, and made this step forward without consultation with Mr. Seward and others, who have the confidence of Mr. Lincoln. It is a significant fact that Mr. Seward sus tains Mr. Adams in the speech the latter made. The recent assurances of gentlemen who have arrived here within a few days directly from interviews with the President elect, that he Is in favor of settling this ?inestien upn any fair basis thit his party will be satisfied with, and that is not in conflict with the territorial policy of tbe Chicago platform, is evident that Mr. Adams s|? ak? by authority, all the disavowals of unauthorised Journals or of ignorant scribblers to the contrary. I steto what I know, and time will devekipe the fact that I am right. The Senators and neprnaeritatives from Ixwisiana have not yet received official notice of the secei?ion of their ; State. They will receive it In aeasou to take their leave of the Senate and House to morrow. Mr. Roullgny is an exception, however, as he doe# not rceognise the right of | the legislature of I^uislana to Interfere with him or | his constituents. He says he was elected by them, not by the legislature of the State; that he led the political flglit In the last campaign upon the platform of "tbe Union and the constitution," and denies the right of any power to control his action In Congress, exeept the people of his district. He will not resign until they In struct him to do so. To morrow Mr. Kellogg, or Illinois, who M ju*t from a visit to Mr. Lincoln, with wliom lie had a free and frank interchange or sentiments, will offer the following pro position, as a basis of settlement of the pending difficul ties. It will be observed that this plan of Mr. Kcllog? * ? nearly the same as that reported from th" committee representing the border States, This is another iudlca tton of the disposition of Mr. Lincoln to settle this qi|??. tion by some fair compromise. Here it Is:? Resolved, by the Senate and House or Representatives of the t'nlted States of Ainertej? In Congress assembled, two thirds of both hou*eg concurring, That tbe following be md are hereby proposed an I r ibmltted as am?nd mcr.U to the cnnitnutioa of tho United States which ?thall be valid to all intents and purposes iwirt ?r i-i Soru?wSir3si2L.'"' t^Te^rTnP.UDd?r/,IerritoriilJ f?vornmeBt; that inall nor WE** ^ ""????W^X.gnZ itader or P?* ^ r_.. Territory of persons bold to exists h? v^ta0y ? 0f tb? Uaion wl>ere that rotation it ?i.?ii vlrt,,e ot *ny law or usage of such State whllo ,D * territorial condition; and wlionauy dari a ? r" or Poulh of NkW lia?. within such boun o"ri? 8 as < ongress may prescribe, aball contain tho nmu thJOD.K^,Ub"rte^ for a mfimber ?r 0?B*ress, acoordtagW the then federal ratio of repr.^enUtwn of t? people of the United Btotes, T may If i?m.T?lgovermiM,nt **> republican, bo admitted into the Unkm on.n equal footln* with the original^ 8tat?? with or without the relation or persons held to nerve and Vnitedsii.,.7^ . tag ? the constitution of the " ~? j t**! or any amendment thoreto shall bo an cons rued as to authorize any department ? ^govern ment to in any manner interfere with the mlAttnn ,,r ta uy wuu> where that relauon lation 'in any State? h^e'iftswroh ih?i '"t ?usu'n thal r?" E3S???a^jSSSS iSSSSS vteoffimytl.'0 the ^ 10 whoni 8U?* naL?of?rrn,8rr?mMiUe^Ville'Ga '8Utet^^ ' name of ox-C.overnor H. V. Johneon was presented to the IT ^ 1,16 "*y ?f tb0 eloction <* dclcgau^ to the Montgomery Convention, without his know'dge or consent, no was Uien sick at his hotel, and did not de sire tho position of delegate. The Milkdgevillc Convention, prior to adjournment, subject to bo recalled at Savannah, a measure that elicited considerable opposition, including that of Mr Tombs, passed a bill to establish an armory in tho SUUj.I It is not unlikely that the arsenal at Augusta lately in possession of the United States government, will be selected as tho site. The proposition for issuing letters of marque and re prisal was in retaliation for the seizin e of arms at New 1 ork supposed to bo destined for Georgia. The resolutions against admitting non-slaveholdiiig States into the Southern confederacy was amended so as to except such States as shall recognise property In bluves and tho right and duty of government to exteud it equal protection with other projierty. Addrefses from Alabama give coloring to the supposi tlon thut there is a disposition among the co-operat.ouists in that State to Tavsr a reconstruction of the Union upon .the basis of the Crittenden compromise. The simo poll cy is also favorably contemplated in some quarters in Georgia. But the great pressure against any compromise in both States will overpower every effort that may bo I made for that purpose. I Captain Kandolph is the only nnval officer of that rank who has resigned, and ho was on tho reserved list. Ills resignation was accepted before information reached the Department of the surrender of the Pensacola Navy Yard. More care is uow taken than heretofore, by both tho ! Navy and War I>e|>artmcnts, to prevent their secret or 1 private orders from obtaining premature publicity, which has on several ojcasions frustrated tho designs of the administration to the public detriment. Applications cont inuo to be received here from postmas ters in the seceded States for supplies of postage stamp*, blanks, wrapping paper, &c.; but these arc furnished on the condition that the ].oPtmasters will acknowledge and conform to the laws affecting the postal service. The Secretary of state has declined to admit that the , eecessiou .uuiumic. .r rll, , ports have any power to grant clearances or receive pay ment of duties. In a letter to lord Lyons he lias dctined the position or this government, and declares tliat tho re venue laws will be regarded as In futl operation. Hon. T. J. Judge, the Alabama Commissioner to ar range the property question, has arrived here, and is in conference with tho Virginia Commissioner, Col. llayno and others. The steamer Brooklyn ha* probably joined tho Macedo nian at Pcnsac*>la. Should an attack be made on Fort Pick ens, which is not now improbable within a short time, considering tho advice of parties distant from the scene, those vessels will co operate with Lieutenant Slem mer in its defence, although it is supposed here he would be able successfully to maintain bis position without ad dltlonal succor. John Cochrane, upon Invitation, again addressed a Bal timore audience las: evening. He was listened to for two hours by an audience of nearly three thousand ladies and gentlemen, upon tho topic of the Union. His address was eloquent and convincing, as testified by the favor with which it was received. The bill reported yesterday from that Committee, pro vlding for calling out the volunteers, did not meet tho concurrence of that branch. John Cochrane'a bill, authorising the President to sus pend by proclamation the revenue laws when obstructed by illegal combinations, met?the approval of all Mr Bianch excepted. IMPORTANT PROM NORTH CAROLINA. RiUUGH, Jan. 31,1861. The legislature to day re clected Hon. Thomas L. Clin*. man Un ited States Senator. A resolution Is now nnder consideration declaring that in case the sectional difficulties arc not speedily recon ciled, Korth Carolina will go with the South The Military bill comes up next. INTERESTING FROM VIRGINIA. Norfolk, Jan. 31,1MI. Yesterday an artillery company and a company of light Infantry, Mate troops, went to Fort Norfolk. The former practiced funs on the bcacb. The ttaUmrat in the New York Houij> with regard to the United States magazine and Mr. Oliver, gunner, Is without foundation. No secret trams have been laid, and there is no scheme to blow up the magazine. The garrison at Fort Monroe now numbers throe hun dred men, and will ho strengthened In a few days by two hundred from Governor s I*land. The brig Amos M. Roberts, Capt. Colaon, of Belfast, Maine, arrived In Hampton Ronrff, brings Oipt. Hlnkley and crcw of the schooner Matchless, of New Orleans, from Rfc> Grande del Pur bound to New York, sunk off the Brazil coast Nov. 27, and a total loss. EXCITEMENT IN RICHMOND. Richmond, Jan. 31,1S61 The following despatch has been received by Judge Hopkins, a member of the House of Delegates, from the Hon. John S. Preston:? CuitMnii. S. C., Jan 30,1161. To Jrnox Horsnm, House of Delegates, Virginia:? Reinforcements are ordered t? Fort Sumter and else where. Will not Virginia, by the l^vlslature, Interp we to prevent coercion? It will be too late when her Coo vent ion meets. J. 8. PRESTON. This de>paUh has oautcd considerable excitement here. THE I.QUISIANA CONVENTION. Nkw Ostium, Jan. 31. IM1. In the Convention this morning a resolution requesting the Military Committee to Inquire and report on the tv> cesslty of s<?idtng tioops to l'< nsacola for the d< fence of Fort Pickens rrest?d a great ?ensatlon. It w is referred to the Military Committee. A resolution instructing the delegates to Montgomery to resist ail efforts to reopen the African slave trade, was tabled? Kighty three to twenty tight. Tliere was an exciting debate on the resolution, In order not to herald to the world that IxiuUiana is in favor of reopening the slave trade and that Louisiana de cllnes expressing any opinion calculated to hamper the delegates to Montgomery with instructions,passed unanl mously. Breckinridge and Rrown, of Mississippi, arc aimed as candidates for Provisional ITesident. Commodore Rousseau, of New Orleans, has resigned kit commission in th. navy. THE MISSOURI LEGISLATURE. St I .oris, Jan. 31,ISrtl. Amotion to reconsider the vote by which the Senate resolution to apimint Commies loner* to the Washington Convention was laid on the table was adopted In the House yesterday, but after much discuwlon, and the adoption and rejection of various amendments and sub stllutes, the whole subject was again tabled, thus defeat Ing the Senate appointments. A preliminary meeting looking to the nomination of un conditional I'nlon men ss delegates to the Stat" Owvcn tien was held yesterday afternoon, at which some two or three hundred persons were present. Resolutions de claring unreservedly for the t'nlon and opposing ripre party men for the ('.invention were adopted and the meeting adjourned till Monday IMPORTANT PROCEEDINGS OF CONGRESS. THIHTY-8IXTH CONOHK8H. SEOOND BB88ION. Senate. Wamiiwotow, JarfT 3T, 1861. TWS ra? YORK MONbTKR ITOOH MEMORIAL?Slim 0? UK HSWARJU. Mr. Bbward, (rep.) of N. Y., presented a monster poti tlon of the citizen* of New York for the passage of reso lutions?substantially the border State resolution*5 Ttio petttisa IB signed by 34,0(0 peoplo, and is twelvehundred IMMK Mr. Btwjiri) said?Mr. rresidcut, I have received a ooiiiHW trni tmu from Meesrb. A. A. Low, Jamen A. tialiaUn, Pater Coo|>cr ami others, who aio a commit tee of twenty five cltizcns of New York, who axe charged with the duty of presenting to tlio Senate of tho United States the petition of tho inhabitants of that city praying for the exercise of tho best wisdom of Congress in finding some yka for adjustment of the troubles which u >w di.-s turb the peace and happiness and endanger the s.ii'ety of the nation. In compliance with their request I waive tho reading of the memorial, and ask that the Senate will iiidnlgo me with allowing to bo read at the Secretary's desk the resolutions the committee havo adopted .11 regard to the views they desire to preBcnt?It .d very short? The Sik-rbtary then proceeded to read as follows ? Retort ok tjis Sitmaj. Committkk to a Mkktimi at Tim Room!) or T"k Cuamiuch ok Commkju e, S-atviu'a^, Jaxv ary '26, 1R00. The special committee to whom was assigned the duty of digesting and presenting a proper basis of action tor the committee ehirged with the presentation to Congress of tho memorial of citizens of New York, prayirg that such measures may be adopted by Congress as will re store tranquility and jieace to our now Uiatracte 1 coud try. beg leave to respectfully re[nirt;? raat, pIdcc the last meeting of tho Momori il Commit tee, a legislative printed document has been recoved, stated to embrace propositions for ati adjustment of tho pent', leg difficulties between tho Northern and f*?ith'"-D Wales, and agreed upon by a committee of tho border States, including Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Ken tucky, Missouri and North Carolina from tho South, and New Jersey, IViumylvHiuii, Ohio and Illinois from the North. These propositions contemplate both acts of legislation and amendments of the constitution, and which, with some modifications and additions, are as fol lows, and which the special committee adopt us part of I their report, which they submit for the consideration of tho Memorial Committee, and respectfully rernmtnor.d 1 fer their adoption, as the basis ol their action under tho I memorial and in furtherance of its objects. Mr. Skwarp?Mr. I'rMilent, excepting the House or | Representatives, this Senate Chamber is the largest hail that is, or ever h:.s been, occupied by a legislative jasmin bly since the witld began. The memorial which I am charged to present is of such a length that, if extended, it would cross the Seuute Chamber in its oxtrcmest length eighteen times. 1 havo already presented memo rials from the city of New York, signed bycitizousof that place to the number of twenty lire thousand, and this memorial boars tho signatures of thirty-eight thou sand more, making, in the wholo, sixty three thousand of the inhabitants of that city who have signed this api>oul to the Senate. The committee who havo charge of tins memorial are a fair representation, I might almost say an embodiment, of cltizns who direct and wield the com merce of the great emporium of our country, the com merceof a continent, and a commerce which, this pre sent year, owing to the distractions of the times, is put, for the first time, in a oonultiouof proving itself to be tho controlling commerce of tho world. The memorial which they present may be regarded as a fair expression of tho interest w hich is felt by that greU commercial community, and, probably, a fa1' ?"i~"rui uf tUr- mt" rest in tne same gitat subject, which is felt by tho whole commcrcial interest of the United States and xu any other part of the world. Such a communication would command obedienie in England, I'ranje, Rissln, I'russia or Germany. A demonstration of tho will of the commerce of the country decides questions of war or peace. Happily, sir, that is not the case In th.s great republic. The interest of commerce is but one , tho in terest of agriculture, manufactures and mining, each of them is another?each are entitled to, and each secures, equal respect, and the consideration which they obUiln is duo, not to their number, not to their wealth, ?V;e to the circumstances under which they lend their advice to the government. But I do not hesitate to say that the character of these petitioners entitle them to the resi>ect ful attention and consideration of Congress, and they havo asked mo to support this petition. I have not yet found, though 1 have anxiously waited for, and hoped for, that manifestation of temp-r on the part of the people of the country and their represents tives, which would Justify me in saying that tl?J seced ing Statw, or those who sympathize with th?m, have mate propositions which tho citizens of adjoining States could sffept, or, as I desire to speak with Impartiality upon thte, as on all other occasions, to put the proposi tlon in mother form, that this or any other of the vari ous propsltions which have come from tho cit izens of adhcrinj States, or those who desire to adhere to the Union, would not be acceptable and satisfactory to the other pa'ty. 1 have thought It my duty to hold myself open an?! ready for the bcsUadjstument which eould be practical)' made, and I have therefore been obliged to ark this committee to be content with the assurancn that I would rxpress to the public and to the Senate. In that spirit in which they come Is perfectly commendable and perfectly satisfactory. It Is gratifying to me to see th it a proper s)irlt, a spirit of fraternal kindness and of concilia tion and UTection is adopted by ?o largo a portion of my fel low citizens of the State In which I belong. I have asked them ala>, In roturn for performing my duty on this oo casion, tast, when they have arrived at home, th?y will act in tht same spirit, and manifest their devotion to the Union above all other Interests, and all other sentiments for the Ihion, by voting for the Union a- if it should be demanded by lending and even giving their monoy for the Unloi, and lighting in it as the last resort for the Union, Ufclng care always that speaking goes before vot ing, vottig goes before giving money, and all go before a battle, wblch I should regard as hazardous and dangerous, and therefore, the last, as tt would be the most painful, measure 'o be resorted to for the salvation of tie I nlon. This Is the spirit In which I have deter mined for myself to come up to this great question, to psss through it, ss I sincerely bcliero we shall pass through tt, for although the great contro versy hat not been already settled, I do not therefore any the l*ss calculate upon and expect that It will be peacefully settled, and settled for the Union. I have not been so rash as to expect that In alxty days, which havo been allowed to ua since the meeting of Congress, and I will be frank, *lr, In saying I havo not expected that In ninety days, which are the allotted term of Congross, this great controversy would certainly be adjusted, poaco restored, and the Union firmly re established. I know, sir, that sixty or ninety days was the term that was fixed with d?llnlte objects and purposes by tint portion of my fellow citizens, who have thought that It cnuM consult th? Interests of the States to which they belong*! to dissevti the Union. 1 have not expectel that rew n an I Judgment * ouId come back to the people and become so per vadtng and so universal as that they would appreciate the danger and be able tos^reeon the remedies. Still, I have been willing that should be tried though unsuccessfully, but my confidence has remained sound for this simple reason, that as I have not believed that the passion and frenzy of the hour could overturn this great fabric of const 1 tutional liberty and empire In ninety days, so I have felt sure that there would be time, even after th" expiration of ninety days, for restoration of all that had been lost, and for the re establishment of all that was In danger. A great many and various Interests and elements are brought into conflict In this sudden crisis; a great many p<T?onsl ambitions and a great many sectional interests, and It would be strange If they would all bo acc mmio dated, arranged and harmonised so as to admit and give full effect to the one profoundest and most enduring s?n tlment or passion of the United States?that of devotion to the Union. These, whether you call them secession or revolution on the one tldo. or ooerclon or defiance on the other, are all to subside and pass away before Union, which Is to become the grand absorbing object of inte rest. aff< ctlon and duty upon th* part of the citizens of the United States. A great many partisan intereat* are to be repressed and Suppressed to give peiro to th" t; ?sn li?t?rcMs expressed by the Charleston platform ; h ltultlnv >e platform, the Chicago plat' 1 ni. by the jki. m or sovereignty platform, If indeed the Union is in dan ger and is to be saved. With theso Interests and with ti eio platforms, everybody stindlng up >n them or connected with th< m la to pes' aw>y if the Union Is In danger and is to Im save 1 But it will require a very short t?ne, if this l stun ih n danger and does require to be saved, fur all ihipe interest*. all these platform! and all those mti to disappear. Y< u, every body who shall resist, oppose or KtauJ in the \?uy gf the preservation of th>s Union, wiU appear an moth* on a summer's eve, when the whirlwind of popular ndignatiun arises that shall be oxcited at the full dif covery that the In ion is endangered through (action and even impracticability on tho odo part. 1 hare hope and confidence that this .s to come around just as I have Haid, and quite suon enough, because I per ceive, alih? ugh we may shut our eyes to it, that ihe country and mankind cannot shut their eyes to tho true nature of this crisis. There lias been a real a vital question in this country for twelve years, at least a <pies tIon of slavery in the Territories of tho tutted*. It was strongest in its development in 1850, when all the Pacitic c< ast and all tho Territory intervening between a and the I.ouis iana purchase was thrown upon our hands all of a sudden, for the purpoeo of our organizing in them free and ind< [?&dent governments no a Ims s of Mure States, and it has boon an earnest and, I re gret to say, an angry controversy^, but the admission of Kansas into the Union yesterday settled, at least, all that was vital or important in the question, leaving behind nothing lut tl.o nascioiiei which tho contost had engendered. Kunsar is in tho Union, Califor nia and Orcgru aro in tho I'nion, and now the tame content divides and distracts this Union for freedom and slavery in the Territories of tho United ?-tatoe just as before. What is the extent of tho Torrl tories which remain after the admission of Minnesota, Origin, Cuba and Arkansas? One millim sixty-three thousand and five hundred squaro miles, and over twenty four tiinee that of tho State of New York?the lwgest of the old and fully developed States. Twenty-four such Statee an this of N< w York are yet to be fully organize! w ih,n the remaining Territories of the Unitod States. Now under what is accepted by tho adminis tration and the government as a judicial deoreo, upheld by it, and put in practical operation by it, every inch of t>iat Territory is slavo Torritory. 1 speak of that decision, not as I accept it, but as it is accepted and enforced by the existing administration. Every foot of it is slave territory as much as South Caro lina. Over a considerable portion of it a slave oode made by a government created by the Congress of the United States is enforced, so that, according to tho cla m? of those who insist ttpen their rights in the terri tory of the United States for slavery, the wholo of this 1.063,000 square milts 18 slave territory. How many slaves are there in it f H<>w many have been brought into it during these twelve years in which It has boon not only relinquished to slavery, but in which tho Su preme Court, the Legislature and the administration have maintained, protected, defended and guaranteed slavery theie? Twenty four African slaves! One slave for every forty-four thousand square miles. One slave for overy one of the twenty-four States which, supposing them tach to be of th? dimension* if New York, or Pennsylva nia, or lndiarf, cover that portion of the area of our republic. Sir, I have followed this thing In good faithj oud with zeal and energy, but I confess that 1 have no fears oi slavery anywhere. In the peculiar condition of things which has oxil<<lsli. very ha3 succoeiod in planting only one slave upon every 44,000 square miles of torritory This, then, has censed to bu a practical question. In lieu o:" it comes up a great and vital and fearful ques tion?the question of Uiilon or of dissolution of tho Union the qucrtkm of country or of no country; tho question < f h jx ; the question of greatness, or the ques tion of faking forever under the contempt of mankind. Why, then, sheila I despair that a great people of thirty V t.i;. L.O mil lie atflu W meet Oils crisis? 1 tuvo no fears that this is a confederacy?it is not an imperial government or the gsvernment of a single State?It is a confederacy; and it is, as it ought to be, dependuut upon the continued assent of all the members ot the confode raey to its existence, and subject to dissolution by their action, but that asrent Is to be always taken by virtue of the original ascent, and held until, In the form pre scribed by the constitution Itself, and in the time and In the manner, and with all the conditions which the consti tution prescribes, and those who constitute the Union shall declare, that it shall be no longer the thirty days, aud ix'y days, and ninety days,given us by the disunionlsts; It may not be enough for their policy and their purposes. 1 hope and trust that it may be time enough for the poli cy ami purposes of the lovers of the Union. God grant that It may be so. But if thirteen shall turn out not to be enough, then 1 see how and when all these great con troverties will be settled, just as our forefathers saw when they framed the constitution. They provided seventy years ago for this present controversy. This whole controversy shall bo submitted to tho peo ple of the United States. In a convention called according to the forms of the constitution, and acting in the manner prescribed by it. Theu, sir, this country will And sudden relief In the prompt and unanl mous adoption of measures necessary for Its salvation, and the world will see how woll and how wisely a great, enlightened, educated, Christian people, consisting of thirty four sovereign States, can adjust difficulties which had seemed, even to themselves as jwell as to mankind, to be Insurmountable. Mr JLaBo*, of Va ?I want to remark that now, at this time, when the government m in progress of dis integration, when there are six State* that have sepa ru-cd from the other*, and are now arming themnelvee upon a large scale, when nay own State appropriated, twolve months ago, in anticipation of what now ?rem* to he occurring, the very large gum for a sin gle Slate, of half a million of dollars to purchase arm.?. and when, within a few days, another appropri ation ww made of f1,000 00* for tbo same purpose, when we find that the people tbemselvos are arming, when counties and towns are exerci'ing their municipal authority, and are raising money for tute same purpose; while these things are going on, and while the public mind is engaged in the slave Sl.tlee, Uiit an- nut yet separated, in d?vlsmg unmo mode hy which lb- Ame rican mind can again be united in a ominoii lulon. what do we hear from the Senator from New York (Mr. Seward;* What do we heir from Senator who occupies the p< sition before the country which be now does, acknowledged to be the head of the political combination which is to bring into power the incoming administration. Mid by the newspaper pr.?v to be the Irobable right hand of that alruiatetraliou, what do we ? ar from that Senator? Any suggestion from a quarter of such weight as to what h<- would recommend to a ma Jority of the States in order to meet the demands, just or unjust, of the slave States? None. Any remark approv ing or disapproving ib<- proportion* bel"ore the country to amend the constitution in this regarof None. Ho know what his opinions are in regard to the proposition* otter< d by the vonerable Senator from Kentucky (Mr. Crittenden), by declaration and by vol.*. uniform and continued. We know what his view* are in the negative, and what are iua views in the affirmative, lite affirmative vote was given in this chamber to substitute the resolutions of the senator from New Hampshire (Mr. Clark). What are they? Propositions declaring, in substance, that the constitution needed no amendment, that the deto.mdii of the Southern States are unreasonable, and that the only remedy (Wr this condition of things in the country was to enforce the constitution and the laws. That is the affirmative view o; the honoiabie Senator from New York. Now, what is it he has elaborated? Why, the honorable Senator, in the midst of a iuaio of general! ties, which marked bis S|>eecli? and It was a maze aud a misty one?in that general mace he marched to the line, and told us what his policy was, and I aasuine it Is the policy of th<?" be is t<> bring Into power. And what was It he U>ld u?k His recommendation to these gen th men. who have sent here thi.i enormous petition' Not adopting their views, not looking to any amend ment of the constitution whatever, lint hte recom mendation is given to uk in four dint iuct pi opusltiona What is to be the policy of those whom n* is to lead Why, ho recommended that these gent lemon, when they went borne, should employ themselves in the great work of restoring the brea< he* nude in the Tnion. How" Why, he said, speak first, next rote for the I n Ion, ti' xl give money for the t nion, and tho last, tight for the Inion. These are the four measure* proi?.sed by the Senator to he.U the g*piu ; Menu in the l'ni<n. 1 ctn understand what he moans when he recommends his constituents tosieik (or the I nion. Bnt I would like to kn> ?? what he means when here commends them to give money for the Union. Mr. Skwarh? In.ring the pr.??*r?t session of Congr"-s the government has *?? n a sudden d?pre. iati"0 in ii< tltiances fr? tn the enditi n f>i thins > a year or two a?o, when the st?ks ot the gcvernmeit wore at i premium. Sine" then they have fallen, anti! the credit of the gi vernment was d a ?'.!-< n.nt or th.rty per ent, while tli-* credit of the State of New York i* at a pronaium. To this commercial community I hive reo?m mended here publicly, as I have heretofore pri vatelv. that they should advtnc? to the Union, as they are advancing to the I nion, and a* they art now fur nishing t" the i nion, fundi by which the President, Dmgreso, the I?epsrtm< nts, yourself and niwtf, and. in short, evry Ptfarltnert o( th" government, to soatain e.i I have rec " mended to them at this crl Is that they ?houid sustain the guvernmet t of their country, and ma nt <>n the credit lo whicb It is entitled. Mr. Maeojr?T pr ^.med that was the use he Intended should be tr.M ? of this fnoMJ which be advised these *entlem< lo cot tr:l> 'e. i did n't. in mind, do the honorable Senator the .n slice t" I ?' vc that with Ibis m "lie, |n jr ?!???#??. *ui.. 'i.e r demorallsi 'hiSo th em otitis 1 tv k .1 for granted that ii w ?s to sustain the a my which wan to conduct the fight which he re C ll tlll till*. ?Mr -Kwaki?1 am sure the hocorable Senator does not intend to misrepresent inc. 1 contemplated. after tho expiration ol all compi omi-es, a convention of the peoplu " 1 nit,"l Statix, called in the constitutional form ? ano;.ii?.j couvculMti shall be held or refund to be n m* ,"1 ' IH Impc.-slhle anything can be done, but unl, by force, ol arm* this Union is to stand or fall, I nave mIvih.-.I my t>eople to do as I shall be ready to do myself?to staaii by the I'nion, to stand or perish with It. |Apt>Uu?e in thegnlkries.] . !r. Marok I wanted to bring the honorable Senator, w|K> is i 1k> expoueiil of the new Administration, U> tho i 'liev lo whiih it is to be directed ] understand from f, u"w tbati;l" remedies failing, through the constttu i i" .Vr * ?*,nv,?;Dl'o" of the M ites, Inn recommendation if nattie?bloodshed to preserve the Union. His ri-com tin imalMin to the jieople is, that thoy shall contribute money, whicb will mauli an army u|>on the South?for "nut To preserve the Union. It in none. It is orokin. 1 here is no Union now tn this country, hir, these Maine were out , and if the battle is to b? ?'Ut hi, it la to be foiife'ht against them fer the purpose of I ' '<i'Ci5| them to (ubjeotlon and dependence. That sim.L ? ?,!Wttlor 18 100 w?o >n the experiences of of ti.Tj *I"IWW i"0 well tho u instruction and theory ever ,0 believe for one moment yon could In mhi i wan I "f the States to restore the w" i e L ^..1 "?"!* to them, i want to let my sel\ I K as mnUiitora i! trt!lni*, who have offered them tatl^ remwly^I* !T * **** lb. hi for whom the Senator ? COUMel" ?r cedMrri s^d'r^v^l VuIZTEEZ S? Z' such condition or things. The honor^le skd? diner equally In regard to the futurMd In ??ardto the prevent. He. with the earnestness of an ardent imagination, sees this country hereafter rent and die E?t- t|Ul? B''Paral? confederacies. I see no such thing in the future. But I do see a returning of reason ?. J. lh" people, and a return of harooiw, and a consolidation ol the Union -firmer than ever before 1 he honorable Senator may very well see that we may dlller in our anticipations of the fu ture, because we differ so much in regard to tho actual living present. Sir 1 am in the Union of the United Mater?this same blessed, glorious, highly inherited. (lOd given i nlon. I am in the Senate chamber of tho United States, pleading for maintaining the Union The honorable Senator says it is gone?that there is no Union yet be is here, on this same lloor with mc, and where is hey In the Union or out of it? He Ib actually present here, and I hold him to ho in tho Uulrn. I will not refer to those associates ol his and mine who are not here now. But tho Senate chambor is here. The seats are thore, the States are here, the Union in hare? here are all these, and I expect that there will be In the returning of reason a further choice from those State?, nnd these places will be Oiled. If I contemplated tliat, in any case It would ho ueci ssary to light for this Union, it is bo cause I know that treason and sedition may?not alone in the States of the Mouth, but in tho States of the North, anywhere and everywhere?bo excited and armed so as to a?sail the Union. Ami whenever It shall come to that, whether In my State or any other State of the Union, then 1 expect whatever can be done shall be done, that reason can do; then I expect what is left to be dono shall be done In the way that is necessary. Mr. ILamw?I give the Senator tho full advantage of his present commentary upon the speech which preceded. 1 want t'i place before tho American people the fact that he proposes but one remedy, either to preserve this Union or restore it, and that is the ultima rati" rmo. Mr. Skwajui (in his seat)?1 did not say restored. I said preserve. Mr. Mahox?\\ ell. let the Senator choose his language. He has presented tho argument of the tyrant foroe, compulsion and power?as the only resort, lie s.iys he is to punish treason and sedition, wnether he tlnds It North or South, and that is the onlv remedy he proposeft in the existing state of facts. Ho takes no notice of tho other fact, that organized political community's claiming to have resumed all the sovereign power whi h they once delegated to this confederation, arc now out of tho Union?actually and completely outside. There m not a federal officer in their limits?not fine?with aU federal authority denied, with laws punishing as sedition and treason obedience to any authority abroad. And yet tho Senator still soys we know nothing of all that?nothing of the purposes of government. 1 understand him to tg nore all that, as though it did not exist. And be it one mnn in a local Convention who is resist ing the laws, or be it three, or live, or tou million, still It would be trea son and sedition, and he knows but oue remedy force Sir, I want to britg him to that point I want that, of othtrs, the peoplo of my honored state should know and that tho scales should fall from their eyes. I am aware that there is a puny, pusillanimous trick to hood wink the eyes of that |>eoplo by crying pence while there Is no peace. I point them now to tho remedies proposed by the most potent In the councils of the new government. I point them to tho four great remedies proposed by the Senator. If I were to use e light expression on so grave an occasion, I should say the Union is |wist praying for. Speaking won't do. Voting won't do. Because those mon who are to be |*rties to the voting are outside the I'nion. And money?bow is money to do ltw Wh v, the honorable Senator has disclosed how Not by demoralizing or subsidizing by bribery, but by using it ns the sinews of war. The next thing in the four acta of the druma which is to be enacted is. battle. Vow, sir let my people understand It; and If any man among them is so puny as to be deluded by these Idle efforts, by circulating papers amoug them saying there are proposi tions for amendment or the constitution which will be carried?propositions that will secure their rights?If there be among the manhood of the whole South any puny enough to be deceived by such contrivances, I point ibem to the words of the honorable Senator from New York. It is money and war whicb is looted to to reduce us i know it is my infirmity to appear to exhibit something like anger, but I do not reel It. I have none of It. Men who are upon the eve of measuring swords conduct themselves as gentlemen, and use no language of mentoe and threat. I trust we nuy avoid the ul imi, ratio of the Senator frcm New York. If It be lu the I'rovidence of God that these slave States are to confederate and form an independent government with a nationality, a tlag an army and navy, and a credit?If that be reservod in the unspoken speedy future, I trust that the good sense, the humanity, the civilization, the regard for unborn pos terlty, will lead the people of the North and the South to repudiate the counsels of the Senator from New York. I shall look to that humanity, that good sense, thit civil ization to Interpose the broad -Egis of tho popular will to avoid the only resort whicb the Senator from New York looks to?that of flfcee aud subjugation. ? 81r, I have told gentlemen that I have met here from other States honor cd nun, who have come h?n? a? volunteers, really upon a mission of peace I liave told them that It was manifest that there was great and imminent danger of a collision between the Plates, and, ir they desired to preserve the Union, in myjudgmeut. they should make it their great work to avoid that collision, and to avoid the civil war that must ensue w hen men's minds are really bsated to madness, and pa.-sion usurps their reason. These bavo l?een my conns-Is. What have been those of the Senator from New York* Here, amid hostile fleets, nnd armies pitted against esch other, in two Southern States?here, where we are in momentary ex pectaiion of bearing of a collision between tbera, what are the counsels of the Senator from New York t "Speak for the Union. Vote for the Union. Give money for the Union, and last or ail, fight for tbe Union." I repeat it I trust tho good sense, the wisdom, the civilisation, the hu manity of the age, will rescue this country from the ef ftct of any such counsels But if that ^teocy which Is ascribed to the opinions of that honorable Senator is cor rect, it will admonish the people now meeting in their so vereign rapacity la their conventions In the Southern Stat's, to let the Idle delusion pass?tho idle delusion that they are to have pesce from any amendments to the eon stitut on. We have now. for 'the first time, distinctly shadowed forth that which I confess.among others, I M seriously apprehended, that the ro'iusels of the leaders would be force?force. We bsve it now avowed opsaly 1 trust the scales will rail from their eyee, and I trust In the free States there Is s body of good sense?an enligbt one l basis or patriotism-sufficiently free from the shack les of party obligations, to aee tho roily or such counsels. What: war to restore thu Uni'm or preaerve Itr And that men or sense shall be deluded into war under the pra te nee of only enforcing the Laws of the nation* I appeal to the free States to repudiate the counsels ot the Senator from New ^ork, and disown them and If, In the Provi dence of is to result that we are to separate taa two conrederaciee, then let the counsels of peace prevail and not tho counsels of the Senator rrotn Nsw York. I#t the c unsels or pence prevail, as the only counsels which ran sveit that greatest of all calamities?war between brother and brother?a war betwnen races, which could conquer peace only tnrough ocoans of blood and coubtlsea millions of treasure. And when peace came would you find a free people, capable of constructing a grim i musar No. Yon woflM tlnd a people subjugated, and crouchtoc under the trend of a despot, and you would Ami the war rior clad in arms with money contributed under the counsels of the Senator from New York. That would be the result of war, and the only result, I earnestly tnwt in d< spite of these counsels, these reports which are aow making through the mediation of my honored State may restore harmony to the government, and that there li an enlightened patriotism in this country that will meet and se|?rate in pasce Mr. SrwAsn?I hsvs been amazed and surprised at the delusion of the Senator from Virginia to maks oat of a speech, pacific, fraternal, and cordial, sacb aa I have made, a declaration of war. I cannot soeoant fbr It While bis kense of honor remains so clear and bright that he avoids all those personalities which might vitiate yet bis Judgment is somehow so under his passion that he cannot ?oo anvthlug but war. In a speech which pro poses simply this?that, since this Ualan is tn danger every other question must yield to the oonsidenttion of Ibe removal of that danger by the pacific constitutional action of the American people, by speaking first, by voting, by defending the I nlon where it stands, by sup plying and maintaining the credit of the government, and last tn the last alternative, after everything Is SX hauMcd. all the existin* ovdes of settlement, and all oth< is that mav be suggested, and finally a Convention, s constitutional Convention, then to stand' by this good old flag, and if It is to fall from its eminence, to be wrapped 1n Its folds. Sir, the honorable Senator should nave recollcited that when I came into the Committee of Thir teen, I listened to every proposition which wsa mode. And will any one say that 1 offered ap no prejudices, no Concessions to propitiate an airreemeutf What proposi tion did 1 refuse to consider ' None. And when I voted to ?nb-tltule a constltuti"fisl provision for the settlement of this ipieeSion. In preference to a proposition which re tinites to take in ao unconstitutional and ineffectual way, I he sent 'meiits of the people upon the resolutions of the Sennter from Kentucky, I did It In a spirit of kindness ind concession. This very proceeding of the State of which tho honorable Senator sposks so proudly, 1 ree >m mi nded to my own .^tste, and it is now actios In ? >ndiag ('? sii > ioners to meet the other Slates in their CVavea rowrriNVTO on srRRTH raomi

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