Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 24, 1843, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 24, 1843 Page 1
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i j NOT TBI O X. O K T OP G Jl S A K B0T THU WBLFASB OP BOMB. VOL. XVI. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, MARCH 24, 1843. No. 43 fcrlimfarm firm x&&&. From the " Ladics' Misceliany," published by the "Young People's Society for Mutual Improve taint," in Dublin. ,..,, ! wandered forth ono lovdy summer eve, To ttste the freshness nl the balmy air, The plodding business of the day to leave, And lose awhile the memory of care. Towards thu village Church my steps I bent, Upon a rising eminence it aiood i Her airy wines imagination lent, As roaato view high mountain, lake, and wood. The sun was lingering in the Western sky, Circled by clouds of (old and purple hue, While mimrling shides of rvcry varied dye, Harmonious blendvd with tho Heavens' deep blue, Monadnock Mountain ptoudly reared its head, And marked ita outline on the azure skies I While far beyond the fields in green outspread, 1 viewed the leaser mountains round me rise. Hot distant far, in tranquil beauty bright, Monadnoek Lake ita crystal waters spread, Fair, glowing in the sun's reflected light, That on its bosom mildest radiance shed. Upon tho left my native village rose, Quiet and peaceful all around it seemed ( Upon the right the testing place of thnso On whom the setting ray of life had beamed. Thoughts of the past came crowding on my mind, The Indian wigwam rose upon my iew While fancy, with reality combined, And mingled tho ideal with the true. Upon this hill ofr the wild warrior strayed, Or his Ik'ht bark u'er yon smooth waters plied, Or peacefu'ly in yon deep forest shnde lie lived ; or in vindictive war he died. Of all their race no traces now remain, . Hut in their place mir smiling homes arise, And far extended round, wide fields of grain, Ripening beneath our warm and genial skies. And far and near our country's aliars stand, The village Church nnd Learning's sirred hall, In bright nrrav throughout our happy limit While Freedom's flig is waving over all! As long I viewed the sceneirt Invrlv round, Myneirta fervent aspiration breathed. That my fair country might be ever found, Bath great and good in peaceful laurels wreithrd. CEL1A. From tho Providence Journal. TUB COMET. Mr. Editor: At a moment when thfl public eurosity is strongly excited by the of an unlocked for and very remarkable Comet, a word upon the subject will nut lie out of place. Six or seven days ago vague rumors from abrond by newspapers and otherwise, announc ed that a Comet was to be seen, nnd still more, that it was to be seen at mid-day near the sun's disc. We very soon satisfied ourselves that the latter part of this report was unfounded, and concluded, perhaps too hastily, the same of the former. On the evening of Sunday, the 5th instant, the weather heinj very clear, tho attention of many persons was attracted to a long, slender and slight'y curved beam of light in tlio western sky, which appearing in a very transparent at mosphere nnd pretty well defined, though not remarkably bright, could not be confounded with IIioeo diverging beams which in a hazy air are often seen in the west after sun-set. On the evening of Monday, the Cth, as the twilight be gan to fade away from a perfectly clear sky, the tame slender beam of light re-nppenrcd with in creased brightness. It was first observed by the writer at 7 o'clock. The beam commenced a little above the horizon, the orninnry exhala tions not permitting it to be seen lower, at a point 10 or 15 degrees south of west, and with the aid of a common finder to a telescope could be traced 45 or 50 degrees of a great circle, making with the horizon towards the south an angle of about 35 degrees. The breadth at tho lower point was about 2 degrees, or 4 times the diameter of the setting sun ; it grew broader toward the upper end not exceeding, however, about 3 degrees at tho widest place. At the hour mentioned it was quite well defined, not withstanding a strong twilight and the presence of the moon, fuvch days old. It was ohsened till a little after 8 o'clock, when the lower part had passed below the horizon, and the upper was lost in vapor and exhalations which always exist in the lower strata of the ntmnsphcrc, There seems no reason todoubt that (hit beam cf light is the tail of a comet. The body, or nu cleus, if there be any, is probably too nearly in range of the sun to be seen. The directions of the tail would evidently pass near the sun's place, but whether north or south of it is not certain. We are authorized, then, to speak of this new visitor as a Comet ; and it is certainly the most remarkable one which lias been seen for at least a century. We have said that it was unlooked for Since tho commencement of the Christian Era, five or six hundred different comets, or at least different appearances of comets, have been no. ticcd. Of this number the orbits of about 140 have been computed. The orbits are nearly all of a parabolic firm that is, the path of the comet does not return into itself. When it has left our system, it leaves to return no more, un less its course should be disturbed by the attrac tion of some heavenly body and its orbit chang ed. Three comets only are known Jo revolve in Ellipses, and to return at regular intervals They are the fo'lowing : 1. Hallej's which had a period of about 70 years. It passed its perihelion or nearest ap proach to the sun on the lfnh of Nnv, lb35. It will not again return till the year 1011, 2. Encko's, which has a period of 3 1.3 years, or more exactly 1207 days. This was last seen the spring of 184'J. Its next return will bo in the summer of 1845. 3. Biela's, which has a period of about 03-4 years, or more exactly, 2401 days. Its last re- turn was in 1839. The next will be in 1810. rri. .. ... no ursi oi ineso on its last appearance, though visible to tho naked eye, was by no means conspicuous or impressive. Its appear. atice on somn of its previous visits, is described ai terrific and alarming in the highest degree. The two last named, EnckeV. and Biela's. are o exceedingly faint that it requires telescopes Ol consiueraoie power to see them at all. The present comet is remarkable for tho lengtli of iti luminous, train. The only consDicious comet within the last century, or since the creat comet of 1744, was thatofisu. tho tail of which wa S3 degree! in length. It has been obsorv that those comet which approach very near to the tun have their matter greatly diffused, thus prouucing wng tain, un this principle, the Dre ent comet may be supposed to be near the sun Tho following is given by Arngo as tho lengths of tails of some of the most remarkable comets which are upon record : Comet of 1811, length 23deg. " of 1089, length 59 deg. curved like a Turkish sabre. Comet of 1080, length 00 deg. " of 1709, length 07 dog. Thus the comets of 1090 and 1769 might b in tho horizon setting, whilst a portion of their tails would bo in tho zenit1;. Expressed in miles, tho length of tho former of these would be more than 00,000,000. Wc, at first entirely rejected the report that a comet was visible in the day time without the aid of glasses. Such testimonies have since been received as leave no reason to doubt that ono or two days of last week the present comet wls in such a position, nnd of such brightness, as to bo seen at mid. day by the naked eye. This though extremely rare, is not without prece dent. The Astronomer Lalande mentions one which was scon at the death of Demetrius, King nf Sy ria, 140 years boforo Christ, which was said to be as large as the sun. Another appeared nt the birth of Mitliridntcs, which, according to the awe-struck chronicles of that age, emit cd more light than the sun and embraced the whole hcav. ens. But those accounts arc evidently fabu lous. The following remarkable ases, in the opin ion of the present eminent French Astronomer Royal, Arago, are well attested : In the year 43 before Christ, a "hairy star" appeared which could be seen in daylight with the naked eye. It is hardly necessary to add that the superstitious Romans considered this as tho deification of the soul of Cavir, who had assassinated a short time previously. In the year 1&02 after Christ, two comets of great brilliancy appeared. One of them was so bright that the nucleus, and even the tail, could be been at mid-day in March; the other could be seen before sun set. Cardan relates that in 1532, the eurosity o' the inhabitants of Milan was ly excited by "a star winch could be seen at uiiJ-day." Vo. mis not being in a position to be seen at the ' t inr. t!ir .itnr nf fflfilnn ia knlint-ml In liat-n tinnn a comet. "The beautiful cometof 1577 Wisdiscoierca'," says Arago, "on the 13th day of November, by Tycho Bralie before sun set." We l.ave before alluded to tho great comet of 1774. On the 1st of February this, according to the Astronomer Chczcaux, was more con spicuous than Sirius, the brightest of the stars ; on the 8tli it equalled Jupiter ; a few days after it was only equalled by Venus. On the 1st of March it was visible to the naked eye for seve ral hours about mid-day. Tho present comet, on supposition that the testimonies which have reached us should prove good, will rank among tho most extraordinary ever seen. It is no doubt moving with great ra pidity. Should tho evenings bo cloudy fur a week to come we may possibly not seo it again. Time was when tho appearances of 60 strange a visitor, flaming through the firmament, spread universal terror and consternation. That time, we hope has, in a great measure, passed away to return no more. But the worid is evidently not yet fully purged of the old leaven of ignor ance and superstition. There would cecm to bo somo ntu ng us who arc incorrigioly bent upon making reason and common sense subor dinate to the most childish fears, and tho most whimsical and proposterous fancies. Predicted martyrdom at the tail of a comet would scarce surpass their credulity. Whether there is any cure for such ignorance and fears we know not. It may ho well, however, for such to cons der that comets are a part of the creation which God made. They pursue their respective and np. pointed courses with as much order and harmony in respect to the great laws of planetary motion, as do tho members of our own little system. I hoy arc, so to say, messenger;, from otic sys tern to another, and come lack to us from the long travel of a thousand years, to announce to us that harmony and order pervade the uni verse. Comets are not so rare as may at first be sup posed. From 1602 to 1831, no less than 43 were seen. In 1820 five comets were seen, and all new ones. The probability is that about thieciicw cornets will be seen every two years. A remark or two we intended to make upon tho probability of the Earth's being somo lime or other destroyed by the collision of a comet. It is sufficient perhaps to say, that tho possibility of such collision is admitted. The possibility i-i it lias been computed with great care. The re suit is given by Arago. It may possibly minis ter some consolation to those who dread such a catastrophe to be informed that the Earth ni.nds her own business and gives to all idli wander ers an iinmen.-elv wide berth. Tho chances ol escape aro 281,000,000 to 1 of collision. The effects, moreover, of s-jch collisiun might bo very disastrous ; but the real probability is that the Earth w ould bear off in the upper re. gions of her atmosphere the diffused matter of many comets without in the least disturbing the composure of us poor mortals in theso nether parts. Wo cannot but hope, therefore, that this in. teresling visitor will-remain with us long enough to fairly make the acquaintance, and leave us to carry to other and distant portions of the uni- vert-e the same welcome intelligence which it brings to us, that Uw, order, and harmony reign through boundless space. C. Urotcn Unuersity, MarchOth, 1813. Unbounded Liberality Yesterday morn. in'', a little girl about 7 years old named Caroline (. Hayes, on her way to school, lound a roll tf hills lying on tho side-walk near tho corner ol Pleasant and Tremont streets. She took it to school and showed it to tho school-mistress, who counted it, and found the parcel contained 470 dollars. After school the school-mistress car ried it to tho father of the little rrirl. a rcsoecta- ble mechanic residing in the neighborhood of ttio piaco wncre the money was found, and he hunted up the owner, who was enraptured at the recovery nf his money and centrouslv made the little girl a present of a bright ten rent piece I This very liberal gentleman ia said to bo worth about IBoaton Times. THE MODERN SORCERESS; OR, TRUTH STRANGER THAN FICTION. Tlio criminal records of Spain over nntl unon present cases, which prove that the re vengeful spirit, long held to tho peo ple of lliat country mid sonic other parts of southern Europe, still exist mining them in utmost undiminished force. Circumstances, indeed, havo prevented tlio peaceful spread cf education in theso quarters, nnd wo could rationally look for improvement from no oth er source. A Snragossa paper describes the following appalling caso as having heon heaid before tlio magestcrial tribunal of (ho city, on the 4lli of January lust. Wc give the narrative hero, us translated into tho French journal. Upon tho flowery borders of tho Ehro, near tho city of Snrngnssn, thero lived, with in these few months, n woman named Cala kena. Shi) called herself sixty J ears ofngc, and appeared not to bu young; but notwith standing nuy tokens of age disccrnalilo on her countenance, it was still evident that she had been remarkable for beauty. Cilukena Inid dwelt in Iter cabin on the Ehro for ninny years ; she lived alone, mid, liko tlio owl, only issued, for the most part, by night. She carried continually in her hand n long black staff or wand, mid her dress was n gown com posed nf stuffs of various kinds, nntl of differ ent cnlers, placed together. Throughout the whole district at Surugnssn, Tarragona, mid lliicnta, from the garden plains of Navarro even In ihu fur south she was known, mid rcnutod u redoubtable .sorceress : mid all de vout Spaniards missed themselves nnd mut tered a prayer nt her approach, or in passing her residence. This very fear indicated tho extent of the popular belief in her power; and hundreds came, oven from great distan ces, to avail themselves of that power, in or der to gel a glance into tho future, or to fin ther worse purposes. It was no uncommon thing to find even carriages nt tho door of the sorreress's cabin when tho shades of evening iiad fallen in. Those who remembered tho arrival of C ilakena in the neii'libilmod of Saragossa, said that she had then appeared young and exceedingly beautiful, lhouih tho traces of somo gnawing grief were visible in her look and deportment. Shu herself had said at that time that she came from Madrid, nnd that she desired to pass tho rest of her life in peace, nt a distance from tho gay world. Excepting as respected the occupations which her character drew upon her, and which shu did not dislike, or at least did not avoid, Cal- ikena really passed her (lavs lit omul. Dur ing; the civil w;ii', indeed, consultations mul tiplied upon her. She rend horoscopes to the chielk ol ihu Chiistinns, and to tho sol diers of the army of C.ihrer.i. All narlies treated her with respect for her mystical character, unit slid could puss from place, to place, nmong their wildest ranks, without n shadow of injury. Such was the sorceress Calakena. Ono evening in December (1840), nn equipage stopped 1 cfuro tlio cabin of Cala kena. A lady stepped out of it. She was a young creaturo of exquisite beauty, wilh checks colored liko the pomegranate, und lung tresses, dark as ebony. " My dear mother," said tho visitant to thi! reputed sorceress, slipping nt tho same timo a ducat of gold into her band, "I am about to bu married, nnd come to know if mv fortune is lo be a happy one." " From what place does your intended hus band come 1' ns'.oil Calakena. " From Venice, mother," was the reply. " Venice !" cried the sorceress, with kind ling eyes, " Venire ! and his name?" " Giacoino S.tlv.idi," unsiv.cred the visit or. Tlio S ylili bounded from her seat in a slate of seemingly, irrepressible excitement, with winch was mtiigleil an appearance of wild joy. After paiiae, she said, with a little mum calmness, "lie loves you, does hoi" " Yes, mother," returned the young ladv " llo calls you his angel, Ins divinity, tho living sun ol ins iitet Yes, my good mother." no passes uays at your leel in gazing upon your eyes, and tho night ho pusses un der vour windows ?" " Yes, often, my pond mother ; you speak the exact truth, said Hie visitant. " And then ho sings to you," said the sor ccrcss ; "lie sings lo you such words us these Tho ruby and tho cpal stonr. The diamond with its kindlin;dycs, The star of morn, sobrichtly lone, Have nut the charm of thy sweet eyes, One tells us of the coming; sun. And gems their owner s wraith may prove, But thy sweet eyes, beloved one, They speak of lorcf " Oh, mother ! cried tho voung visitor lo tint sorceress, -'your power is astonishing, lie does sing ibeso very words lo me !" " You seo that every thing is known to ine," answered C ilakena, "and vou will be tilt: heller prepaied lo follow mv counsels, In order that your niarriaye may bo happy, it is necessary that you should send your in tended bridegroom in me. On lis firmness and courage, under the proofs lo which I shall subject him, depends your future wel fare." The young lady, Donna Isabella, was de lighted with this answer to her application Seeing tint extent of the sorceress's kno vi ed go in one respect, she bad no doubt but the l.itler could ensure her wedded happiness, or nt least, wanl oil any impending evils ly timely warning. 11 If our happiness depend on the firmness und courage of Uiaionio, we must bu happy, for ho is bravo its the Cid. ' Go, then," answered Calakena, "and tell him to come hither to-morrow evening. Dut yon also must come, mid before him." ' Why before him, mother 1" asked tlio visitant. " Because it is essential lo tho proof (o which ho must bo put," said the I'ortiinn tel ler ; " and above all, it is requisite thai bo should not bo awaro of your coming hither. The charm would bo rendered of no by his knowledge of your presence." Tho lady Isabella entered Iter equipage, nnd went homo In ull haste. Sho strictly obeyed the instructions of Calakena telling ring the season 684 wero on the aick liil( and r.: 1.. .U f a.i I.--I Jktu A-A . !.. VA. n .ktntU siacouio uuiy ao ujuiu vi wiioi utu jjanvou as tho sorceress desired. To (dense his fair young mistress, Snlvndi readily consented to visit the cnbin of Calakena. At the timo up pointed, he went thither accordingly. On the following morning, Giacoino Sal vadi stood as n prisoner beforo the chief mag istrate of Snrngossn, in the presence of nn eager nnd whispering crowd. Tho hands of Salvadi were tied behind his back. On the court table, in front of thn bench of justice, there lay somo linen mid portions nf fomnlo iiltire, sinned deeply with blood. In n glass beside them was n pnition nf thn same fluid. The nlcade-niayor first broke silence, by addressing tho licensed. "Giaconio Salva di," said lltu magistrate, 'yon are charged with tlio assassination of Donnn Isabella, your own betrothed bride. Have you nny defence to offer, or explanation to givttV ' Yes, sir,' replied ihu accused, in low but firm tunes. Speak then,' said the nlcnde ; 'and may Heaven enable you lo justify yourself and clear up this dreadful transaction '.' Tho accused commenced by n statement of what has already been detailed here, de scribing Donnn Isabella's visit lo the sorcer ess, and the consequent request made lo him self that ho also should visit Calakena's cabin. 'I went thither,' continued tho accused, 'and, ns directed, nearly at tho hour of midninht. The sorceress met me nt the threshold of her cabin. 'You aro welcome,' said she ; you must now romo with me to some distance from this place. Dut in the first place, let me ask if you have a firm bold heard' 'I Hunk i nave,' was my repty. I lien let us hence,' answered tho sorceress ; and desir ing me tu follow closely, she walked away from the rahni. The night was rather dark, the light of the moon being but feeble. Wo Iked on without stopiiiiiL', for nearly a quarter of an hour, until we reached the court of tho church of Pilar. Calakena here made me enter into a low und dimly-lighted cham ber. All thai 1 could sec in it was a table with a black cloth upon it, concealing some thing. An empty glass and a poiuiard stood on another table or shelf. Giacoino!' said the sorceress, inn low hut empathctic voice, 'if you would ho happy, striko that proiniard through this chilli !' t hesitated. 'I know not,' said I, 'if I ought lo do such h tiling without knowing Coward 1' muttered Calakena, 'yon would command destiny, nnd yet your arm trembles nt such a petty trial !' 1 Thinking that, at the most, this trial could only be a foolish and fruitless piece of mum mery, I became ashamed of mv weakness, mil lifted tho pntniard, struck it into the mid lie of the black cloth. Horrible to relate, lilood immediately burst inton stream through the aperture made by tho weapon ; in one instance after the stroke was struck and be fore I could recover from ihu shock conse quent upon ils lesulls, Calakeno, who bad the glass in her hand, darted forward, and caught somo drops of the flowing blood into it. 1 To thy health, Giaconio Salvadi !' cried she, with tho voice of a triumphant demon, as she raised thn glass to her lips ; 'it is Ma riuncltii who drinks lo thee !' In tho sorceress I now recognized n wo man with whom I had been acquainted ma ny years before, nnd who, win n 1 hud left her, had sworn bitter vengeance against me. Dot I had no time to attend to her, for ero her frantic words were uttered, quick as her proceedings were, the black cloth hud been cast off, and I found n woman on tho table, tittering her dying moans. The meaning of the sorceress was now made but ton clear to me. Tho victim was my betrothed bride, Isabella ! From her simple lips, Calakena had learned my name nnd my intention of marriage, nnd had profiled by Isabella's be lief in her magical powers lo bring her lo this retired place, mid to deliver her over to the knilu with whichshi! had armed me. ' This is the truth,' said Giaconio in con clusion. 'As regards intention, I am innocent of this murder as Ihu new. horn child.' Several witnesses camu forward wnen Gi aconio had concluded, and testified to sever al points in lnsl.ivor. Wlnie Giaconio hung in agony over bleeding bride, the sorceress had fled, and somo of the witnesses had seen her passing with speed from tin.- neighbor hood. Isabella too, had lived long enough to explain ihu whole transaction, us fur us shu knew of it. Her declarations went to sub stantiate all that had been related by Salva di. In consequence of tho production of these proofs in bis favor, Giaconio was final ly acquitted of ihu crime, with the consent of all acquainted with llin case. Tho sorceress Calakena has been sought for, but lias not as yet, been heard of. From Giaconio und others, it has been learned that she was ii woman not more than thirty-five years old, and must have assumed the up pearancu of age in order the mora effectual ly lo impose on llin public, nnd prosecute the prolessoin to which iho had npplied her self. On her cabin being examined, u num ber of coloring substances wero found, by menus nf which she hud given herself the hue and look of old age. Thn length of timo during which she had nursed tho sentiment of ruveiiM1, shows u violence of passions scarce ly credible without such proofs as those giv en. It appears even but too probable that she hail assumed the character of a sorceress at first, in the hope that she would belter at tain her desired object, and that her plan of revenge bad been long matured. Dut for tho lamentable and ignorant credulity, how ever, of her victims, her murderous purposes might have been frustrated. Half of tho ca lamities of mankind comu in tho train of su perstition. Cure tor Hard Times Cheat tho doctor by being temperato j cheat tho lawyer by keep ing nut of debt ; and cheat the demagogue of whatever party, by voting for honest men, A Pole who sported somo such names as Ko niatieki was recently liberated from confinement at Philadelphia. The writ for his release was made out with the name of Cogniac Whiskey: Canada. The number of emigrants from Great Uiitain In Canada, durinc the last year, u. r9 !LVi Of thin number 43.000 wero for- warded at the exoense of the government. Du- uv uiww i CORNSTALK SUGAR. Numerous experiments Itnvo been Iricd in various parts of the country, thn past year, with respect lo obtaining sugar from tho corn stalk. It could, indeed, hardly bo expected thai persons entering into it without much knowl edge of the process of manufacture, and, in many cases, never having been furnished with any plan on which to conduct it, and possess ing no requisite machinery, nnd beforo the difficulties attending its granulation bail been removed, would bo successful in their efforts. Yet tho results have every wbero been so satisfactory, that, though but little sugar lias been made, not ono person from whom we have heard expresses n doubt of its entire practicability, or tho least discouragement. On tho contrary, ihey, ono and till, confi dently assert, that tho product will yet be come n great staple in our country. An ex cellent molasses, or sirup, has usually been obtained , and were this thn only thing se cured, yet, in this point of view, it would doubtless provo a great desideratum. Mr. Webb, of Wilmington, Delaware, to whom the country is so particularly indebted lor introducing Hits discovery to notice, nnd for his perseverance in demonstratinir its practicability, made a definite experiment on a certain amount of land, sown ns he had be fore recommended. Speakins of his former views, lie says: "These anticipations have been more and more confirmed by everv sue- ecetllvg step in the iiwcstisation." Ho says, further: " Theru was no deficiency in the cum; it was entirely in our mode of treating it ; and, after all, the failure was on ly in crystallization." It appears that the corn was fully ripo before the least prepara tion bad been mado for manufacturing it ; nnd, after this, delays wero occasioned by breakages, incident to new machinery, by which the progress was so hindered thai a considerably part of the crop was killed by the frost beforo it could be ground. He goes on to observe that tho greatest pait of the su gar he obtained was from this frost-killed corn, and says : " This fact is important, ns it shows the supcrioty of corn over llin cane." In this point it would seem he is mistaken, according to the account above given of the cane crop of Louisiana. He further says : " Wo obtained 50 gallons of sirup, which (being boiled to the density of sugar ) was much richer and better than the best sugar house molasses ; part of it was sold at SI per gallon. We also had 10 gallons of simp evaporated in broad shallow vessels ; this crystallized readily, and made good sugar." Again : " Desides thn products above men tioned, wc obtained from tho acre about 40 gallons of vinegar. The fodder was equal in value to two Ions of hay ; and there were 20 cart loads of stalks, after passing the mill. One-fourth of ihu crop was lost, in conse rpiencn of being prostrated by n slorni late in tho season, and another fourth from the stalk being imperfectly pressed. Consider ing every thing, thn result is satisfactory." For further particulars of his process of evap oration, reference may bo had lo tho Appen dix, No. 2. A fair review of the progress of tins expenmcnt lully pistifies Ins language: " I du not think that any manufacture ever promised better, in the early stages of its in troduction." In the Farmer's Cabinet for January, 1843, a correspondent of that journ al, whoso opinion seems entitled lo conside ration, remarks : " Few persons would bu apt to calculate thn expense attendant on even a small experiment in the making of sugar, whether troni Hie cane, the beet, or tho cornstalk ; till who know any thing about it, however, aru uware of the fact, that the process, even from the first, is proverbially laborious, careful, nnd expensive." " Mr. Webb's apparatus cost him about S300. I should rather add SI, 000 lo that sum. In my own opinion, tho causn of the fiiluro in the attempts lo make sugar from tho beet has arisen from thn single circum stance of its never having been taken up on a sufficiently expensive scale. In France, there is no difficulty or delay experienced ; hut there tho machinery is equal lo the labor required." The wriler also refers to Mr. T. Morgan, of Louisiana, und says" that, ac cording to his experience, the jnico of the cornstalk, as stated by the saccliaroinetor, is tico-tenths stronger than the juico of tho Louisiana sugar cane a circumstance ac counted for by iho aci that the cane does mil fully ripen in Louisiana, so that the juice is incipient." On the other hand, tho corn ripens per fectly, nnd then affords a juico properly cor rected and matured, and hence defecation of it is remarkably easy. He further says : "I havo been informed tint Mr. Morgan was so well satisfied of tho cultivation of the corn stalk, for the purpose of making sugar, that hn, the last year, gave orders for the growth nf n certain breadth on his sugar plantation, in Louisiana, iho past summer, sous lo give him a full boiling of juico for his vacuum pan, that tho trial might bo made on a scale sufficient to producn actual results, by which to calculate, in n pecuniary point of view, the real value of cornstalk in the manufac turing of sugar, but that his intentions were frustrated, levelled to tho dust, by n storm, which prostrated tho corn, and entirely ruin ed his prnspects. Speaking of some sam ples of sugar manufactured by Mr. Webb, he says ; " It has been objected, thai (he grains aro not so large nnd fully developed ; it is only it wonder that any grains at all should bo made to appear, from tho manner in which the granulating process bad been compelled in be carried on. Mr. Morcan, with his 10, 000 gallons of liquor, nt 45, would soon be nblo In civo a better account of iho matter." Mr. Dlake, of Indianapolis, in Indiana, al so tried un experiment on n larger scale ; but, not having as much previous knowledge of tlio process as Mr. Webb had, did not suc ceed in obtaining sugar. Ho says that he made, in all. out of about 4A acres, nbnut 270 or 280 gallons of thick sirup ; 25 gallons of JJL- ....'.. A. i.nlf.11. n( ihtm tVvftl mill he is well assured that he left in tho ground corn one-third of tho juice. His corn was planted four feet wide, and drilled one way. Ho planted about six acres, but n portion of it was prostrated bv a storm, nnd so was not used. He found" that wooden cogs and journal for the H would not answer, and recommends iron-bound and iron-plated, nnd metal cogs nnd journals. Ho had no pre vious knowledgo of sugar-making, of nny kind, and of courso hud to encounter nil the difficulties of n learner. For boiling, he used common 15 gallon iron kettles. The great difficulty he found was in arriving at the graining point, in boiling. His plan was to boil thu juico of thu cornstalk, us soon nr the scum was removed, down to n strong sirup, nnd then put it into n cooler, or large tub, having Iwo or three inch holes, one in a level with the bottom, thu others an inch and a half from tho bottom, nnd let it remain to tho next day, und then boil it down lo the graining point. Ho says ulso, " my main object in trying tho experiment was to as certain whether cornstalk contained saccha rine sufficient to make it an object to culti vate it hereafter, as one of tho great staples of our Stale. On this point, I am satisfietl that, in a few years, it ("ill become an article of export, nod of great value to tho West." " My molasses is esteemed, by all who taste it, lo be superior to New Orleans." " From experiments 1 mado when I bad got my mill to work well, 1 could grind 300 gallons of juico in about IB hours' work, with two hor ses, allowing ono hour for each horso ut a time ; two boys could attend the mill with case." From the best estimate I can make of tho cost per acre, in removing the cars, blading, lopping and cutting, hauling, grinding and Dolling, ivc, it was between 12 and 15 dol lars. Of course, it would have cost much less, if I had been as welt organized as I could be, wero I to carry on thu business upon the same scale hereafter; boys can do most of the work." Ho also expresses bis lull in teiilion to go into the business with a viewto permanency and profit. Others also, in Indiana, tried tho experi ment with various success, and by a commu nication from Mr. Plumnicr, of Richmond, in that State, it appears that, in alt cases, the success equalled expectations ns to llie quan tity per average ucro; hut the quality was not so line as expected, and it was supposed some added more cieum of lime than was ne cessary. The sugar, however, proved equal to about second quality New Orleans, lie also remarks that they found wooden rollers would not answer as well, ns they were liable to cut in ridges, and thus much of tho sac charine matter was lost. lie further suggests, that, by planting the corn sonic days apart from eacli other, one mill might serve a num ber of persons, and thus the expense ho less ened. The farmers there, he adds, ns nn evidence of their confidence, do not expect to open their sugar trees again. The conclusion is expressed by several, that from COO tu 1,000 pounds ofsuerr may easily he procmed from an acre. Another person speaks of obtaining half a gallon of sirup from n bushel and n half of crushed stalks. Air. Goodrich, of Terre Haute, in Indiana, is also stated to have pro duced from eight gnllons of juice Iwo gallons oi moiasses, pronounced liy competent juug es equal to the best suenr-house molasses. Mr. J ames T. Gilford, who tried some ex periments with the cornstalk, on examination, lounu mat tuc uutt ol Iho stulk remaining in the field retained its juice und saccharine matter until the hard freezing in November oauseu termeiitalioii to commence, from which time tun saccharine matter was too neid. It is also said, that sugar has been made of the water in which the ears or corn have been boiled ; from whence it has been interred that the cobh contains much sac charinn matter. Mr. Knapp. of Wavnes ville, Illinois-, in a communication made to the Union Agriculturalist, for October, pub i;-t i ... ri- .... ' 1 iisiii-u iii viiicago, says : " i Hasten to say briefly, that I have made about six gallons of niaizo molasses from what was tud"ed (not measured) a barrel of expressed juice of tlio stums, l nnd there is no difficn iv what. iver in clarifying the juice with hvdratn of linn-, sMiiiiuiiig iiiiiii it nous, anil men strain ing through flannel. An immense quantity of extractive matter in the form of u fawn- I! l.! : . ..!, i . colored precipitate is thus speedily got rid of, and the evaporation is then conducted in the same mannar us in making innplo sugar, I Here arc two other nulls m this neighbor hood. At one ol them, sixty gallons of mo lasses have been made from an acre. In re gard lo crystallization, I entertain nn scru pies, when the evapoiatinn is conducted nron- rny anu carried to ine proper points." The experiment has been ulso tried, it is said, in l I l . . t .. . South Carolina, even to granulation, without difficulty, with perfect success ; nnd couli ileitco in its importunco us a product is ex pressed. In the number of tho Albany Cultivator fur January, 1843, n correspondent writes frnm Ohio, and, referring to nn experiment of his own, says : " The result of this experi ment has led me to the following conclusions : " 1st. That Mr. Webb's statement of tlio amount of sugar which mado from an aero is not overrated. " 2d. That stripping tho ears from the stalks-is essential to the production of sugar, lliotign not essential m tlio production of a much smaller quantity of excellent molasses. " 3d. That largo stalks yield much more juico than small ones in proportion to their size, nnd that, consequently, the corn should uu grown in drills, nnd not by sowing broad cast. " 4lh. That the principle labor in ma king sugar from cornstalks consists in strip ping off tho leaves, and that this is most ex peditiously accomplished before tho stalks are rut. " 5th. That three quarts of juico will yield saccharino matter equal to ono pound of sugar; or that eight gallons of simp will make ono gallon of thick molasses. " Clh. That tho manufacture of sugar from cornstalks is nn object well worthy tho attention of every family who has even ono ucro of ground to cultivate." Such are somo of the results of vory im perfect experiments tho first year after the announcement of tho fact that sugar can be madu from tho cornstalk. They were com menced und prosecuted, in most cases, with thn siniplo view of deciding a question on which, probably, nearly all who had lust learned that such a thing was asserted were. to say lha least, somewhat skeptical. They, too, had no conveniences for the manufao turc ; and yet, wilh all these drawbacks to success, the question may be considered as fairly settled by a number of independent witnesses who need only n knowledge of the process, nnd skill nnd experience in conduct ing the trial hereafter, lo ensure complete success. In order to aid in ibis desirable ob ject, and as so mnny aro interested in what ever may throw light on tho subject, Mr. Webb's account, originally drawn up for the Nalionnl Agricultural Society, will be sub joined in Appendix, No. 3. As numerous inquiries also have been made respecting thu best process of clarification, a communication detailing the modo has been obtained frnm Professor Mapes,of New York, who has paid much attention to the subject, which will he found in Appendix No. 4. He, also, ns will bo perceived, expresses his con viction, from somo experiments on the corn- stalk, of its entire superiority over tho sugar cano, if tho enthusiasm of those who made tho former experiments published did not lead them into errors. Tho French scientific journals contain some notice of this subject, and a belief is thero expressed that sugar can bo manufac tured from the cornstalk nnd from the Jig cactus found in thu recent French posses sions in Africa. There nre some facts stated in relation to the manufacturo of sugar from tho cane, which, us they may apply nlso lo that from the cornstalk, it is thought proper lo subjoin. They have been mostly derived from Por ter's Treatise on the culture of the cane. At 10 of Deaume's saccharomcter, it is said, there aro in 100 lbs. of cano juice or sirup 18 lbs. O oz. and 1 dr. ot sugar. 1 his, it will he perceived, is not more, if as much, as Mr. Knapp and others obtained from tho cornstalk. The weight of water, beside what is termed the water of solution, to be evapo rated to rcdtico tho cano juice to n state of saturated solution, is 70 lbs. 9 oz. 9 dr. A saturated solution of cano juice contains five parts ol sugar and three parts of water. 1 his is indicated by 34 of Dcnume ut tho tempe rature of 82 Farcnhcit. Seventeen ounces of lime are used for 300 gallons of cane juice. .The greatest danger seems to be of using too large a proportion of alkali. I ho highest produce of 100 gallons of cane juice for nine years average, on an aero of an estate se lected in Jamaica, is stated to have been 122 lbs. of sugar. The experiments nbove cited, with respect to cornstalk, would show an equal, if not a greater average. It is ev ident, that the whole difficulty of granulation may be obviated by boiling immediately and quickly in not too largo quantities. Tho pa per of Professor Mapes, in tho Appendix, already referred lo, will also furnish valuable information on this point. The Southern States, who have heretofore been engaged in the manufacture of cano sugar, possess peculiar advantages in this respect, as they aru already provided with the requisite ma chinery for grinding nnd boiling, and can ap ply their already acquired doubt with great effect. Hence, we need not bo sur prised, if wo shoold hereafter find them ta king thu lead in this business. It is a truly gratifying reflection, that, while the tempe rance reformation is so greatly lessening tho consumption of corn in the mnaufacturo of whiskey, the introduction of this manufacturo of cornstalk sugar promises to furnish a much more profitable as well as salutrry ap plication. APPENDIX. NoTl Remark) on the manufacture of maize sugar, bf William Webb, of Wilmington, Velavare. Tlie most profitable application of labor is thedsside rntum too frequently overlooked or disregarded by those who attempt the introducu'on of new manufie tures into a country. All calculations of advantage, which is to result from the production of any articl must he made wilh due regard to this point, or prac tice wilt prove them lo be erroneous. Fidlv unpnssed with this truth, the most ricid ex amination is invited inio every thing now olTerid i to that, as far as possible, we may arrive at a correct de cision respecting the real value of the proposed man ufacture. In common wilh many others, I have felt considerable, interest in the plan for ex rendine the cul tivation of sugar in temperate 'climates, and hava mule many experiments, first upon the beet, and re cently upon maize or Indnn corn, in the hope of di covenne some modo by which the desired end might be attained. The results from the lattcrplont have been extreme, ly encouraging. 'I he manufacture of sugar from it, compared wilh thai from beet, offers many advsnta cos. It is more simple, and less liable tofaililre. The michinery is less expensive, nnd the amount of fuel required is less hv one-half. The quantity of sugar produced on n given space of ground is greater, be sides being nf better quality. An exammaiion into the nature and productive powers of these two plant will show that no other results could have been ret. sonnbly expected. It is a well-established fact, that every v-riety ofproduction found in plants is derived frnm the sap. It U also ascertained that the princi pal substance found in the sap or juice of many vei e- lalilcs issuEar. Therefore the amount of saccharin matter produced by any plant nf this description maf of such plant, when ripe. The grain yielded by corn. iil-cpi milieu iruiu mi niiair? a oi ine iru I. um. anil llie seen irom Deet, in the second summer of it growih, are nothing more than this sap or juice eltbo- rmeu uy me prureu oi vcgciauon, ana presented t our view in anoiner iorm. Now, as it is contrary to the economy of nature ts sunnnse that there should beanv loaaornitfrifivmat. ler in this change of sap intnseed or grain, does it not follow that there must be the sime dilTeicnccin the qnnniity of sujrar produced by the two plants as there is between the nutritive properties of beet seed saJ! corn. The mice of maize contains surar. acM. nnd mm. my mucilaginous matter, which forms the scum. k om ttie experiments or uav Lussae, Thentrdr fCirchnfT. and others, fit is proved! that rtarch. suear. and gum, arc extremely similar in composition, and may be as readily converted into each olherby chem ical processes, as they are by rhe operation of noture. For example : starch boiled in diluted sulphuric teid, for thirty-sit hours, is converted into sugar of. greater ivriL'ui iiiiiii ine tuii-ii mnurue in. This result eoestosbovv that everv Bound of turi-K found in the seed of a plant has required for ils pro l ti elk. at least one pound of sugar, in the form of B.I,.. ii i t.c ui'jiii-i, Him mis ueuuciion is too ineo rclieal to he admiltrd, it may be answered that experi ment, so far as it has gone, has fully attested its cor rectness. The raw juice ofmaite. when cultivated for wirar. marks 10 on the saccliaroinetor i while rh awrM of cane juice (is I am informed) is not higher thn 8. ami lieet juice not over i. From 91 quarts (dry measure) of ibe former, Ihaw obtained 4 pounds 6 o nces of Mrup, concentrated te the point suit.iblefor crystalhxaiion. The proportion of crysiallizable sugar appears to be larger than vt obtained fiom cane juice in Louisiana. This it ac counted fur by the fact, lhat our cbniate ripens corn perfectly, while il bit rarely if ever happens that can ii. uuir Hia.uicM. j ii wine ensee ,i,fl sirup net crys tallized to completely, that lesa than one-sixth part of molasaes rrmainrd. This, however, only happen ed after it had stood from one to two months, rfcer i- rrnson to believe, that if the plant wrr felly rjpet and the proeesa of manufacture perfectly performed, the sirup might he entirely crystallised without forte, inrj any molasses. This perfection in rhe manufacture tanner, lwo ever be attained with the ordinary arpereloe. With out any other meant fat pressing oni lhajuie tha f 0

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