Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, February 2, 1844, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated February 2, 1844 Page 1
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ism NOT TUB GLOnV or C 3 S A K BUT TUB WBLTAHB OP HOME. BY IL B. STACY. BURLINGTON, VERMONT, FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 2, 1844. VOL. XVII....X0. 35. From tlio Nov York Tribune. SOXCi OV THE AMERICAN EAGliE. DV A LADV Or VEflMON'T, I build my nest on tlio mountain's crest, Where the wild winds rock my cnclets to f" I Where the lightnings flash nnd the Ihundcra crash. And the roaring torrcni9 fonii nnd dnsh ! For my spirit free henrcforili shall bo A type for tiie sons of Liberty. Aloft I fly, from my cyris high, Through the vnulled dome of the nzurc sky On n sunbeam lirii-ht take m v niry flight, And float in a flood of liquid light i For I love to play in the noontide ray, And bask in a blaze from the throno of Day. Away t sprine, with n'irelcss wine, On the feathery cloud I poise and swing j I dartdown the steep where the lightnings leap, And the clear blue camp tlowly sweep: For dpar to me is the reveirv Of a free and fearless Liberty. I love the hnd where the mountains stand Like the watch-towers high of n p it riot band For I may nut bidt, in my ejury and pride, Though the land be never sj fair and wide, Where Luxury reijns o'er voluptuous plains, And letters the free-born soul in chains. Then eiveto me in my flight to see The Land of the l'lltrinia ewr frees And I ne'er will rove fioin the humus I lore, But watch, from my remind track above, Your banner ftce out land nnd cs, And exult in your glorious destiny. Oh, guard ye well the land where I dwell, Lest to future times the t ile I tell, When slow expires in smouldering fires The goodly heritage of ynur fire-, How Freedom's lislit rose clear nnd bright From fair Coltiinbh's deacon high I, 'Till ye quenched the flame in a starless night Then will I tear from your pennon fair The stars ye set in ttiumpr, there! My olive dianc'i on tin; bint I'll launch, The fl.iiterini: stripes from the Iliu' stafT wrench! And away I'll flee, for I From lo s.'u A cavern race in the Lin I of t'ie Frei. D. Uraiuhn, Vt.. J.inuary, 1344. From the New York Evangelist. THE SABBATH. Messrs. Editohs: In your piper of the 4th inst. the testimony of John Richard Farrc, M. D. is referred to, in which ho maintains 'that if it is the duty cf laboring men to preserve their lives, and not to commit suicide, or bring them, selves to a prointttiro grave, then it is their du ty to observe; the Sabbith." Tlio reason which lie gives for it is as follows, viz : " The ordinary exertions of man run riWii the circulation everyday of his life; and the first general law of nature by which God presents man from destroying himolf is, the alternation of day and night, that repose may succeed ac tion. But although the night apparently equal, izes the circulation, yet it does not sufficiently restore its balance for the attainment of a hmg life. Hence one day in seven, by the bounty nf Providence, is thrown in as a day of compensa tion to porfo.-r I.;, if rppoo llio .mini ,i .(n.i.i You may easily determine this question, as a matter of fact, by trying it on beast ofburihen Take that fine aniiml, the horse, and work him to the full extent of his powers every day in I lie week, and give him rest one day in seven, and you will soon perreite, by tlio superior order with which lie perforins his functions on the olher six diys. that th's rest is necessary to his well being. Man, possessing a superior nature, is borne along by the vigor of his mind, so that the injury of continued diurnal exertion tun ex-, citcment on his animal system, is not so imme diately apparent, as in the case of the brute : but in the long run he breaks down more sud denly. It abridges the length of his life." Dr. Gilbert Smith, late President of the Med ical College in New-York, after reading the statement of Dr. Farre, says, "I unhesitating') lubscribe to his views." Dr. John C. Warren, of Boston, remarks, "I concur entirely with the opinion expressed by Dr. Farre, whom I personally know as a physi. cian of the highest respectability. The utility of observing the Sabbith as a day of rest, con. sidered in a secular point of view, rests upon one of the most general of the laws of nature." Dr. Thomas Sewall, of Washington, D. G, Bays, "For a number of years I have been in close intimacy and intercourse with men in pub. lie life, officers of the Government, Bepresenta lives in the National Legislature, and eminent Jurists, whose labors arc generally great, and duties arduous and pressing. Some of them have considered it their privilege as well as du ty, to suspend their public functions j w hilo oth ers have continued them to the going down ot the Sabbath sun. Upon the commencement of the secular week, the one class arise with all their powers invigorated antl refreshed; while the other come to their duties with body and lion, therefore, in declaring it "as mv opinion that if the Sabbath w.ib universally observed as A day of devotion and of rest from secular occu pation, far more work of body and mind would be accomplished and ho belter done more health would bo enjoyed, with more f wealth nd independence, and that ue should have far less oj crime, poverty, and suffering.'" In proof that wo should have far less of crime, I will mention a few facts. Of 1053 convicts that had been admitted into one State prison 690 wero from a class nf men that had been kept at work on the Sabbath. And of 20:) brought to the prison in one year, 07 wore from the same class of mon. A gentlem in who has teen conversant with prisons for more than 30 years, remarks, both will: regard to those who had been capitally convicted and thoc who had not, that they ordinarily referred toll.o violation of the Sabbath as the chief cause of 1 heir cimes. Anothergcntlcman, who hat! the care of rnoro lhan 100,000, and has taken special pains to as. certain the cause of their crimes, remarked that he did not recollect a single case of capital of fense where the party had not been a Sabbath breaker. Here we cannot but ask, whether the men who are keeping others at work seven days in a week are not injuring them Are they not les sening their health, corrupting their morals, and debasing their whole character 1 Do they not multiply tho crimes, incroa.e the danger, nI augment the burdens of community? La boring men need a weekly day nf rest. They hive a right to it. This right, liko the right to )if, comes not from men, but from God." And tnen must bo permitted to enjoy it, or they must suffer ill body and in mint). To deprive them of it is oppressive ant) cruel. It brings upon them a premature old age, and often consigns tliem to an un'.iWjj grave. Oncol the must distinguished Medical Pro. fjssors in tlio Unilcd States observe?, "The Sabbath should bo regarded as a most benevolent institution ; ad.ipted alike to Iliei'ca7, menial, and moral wants of man. In addition to con stant bodily labor, the corroding influence of in. ctssant mental exertion and solicitude, cannot fail to induce premature decay, and to shorten Lie. J here cannot bo a reasonable doubt that under the duo observance of the Sabbath life would, on the average, be prolonged more than .tio seventh putt of its whole period." A. B. THE CK.vntAL, NEW-YORK FAR MERSINFLUENCE OF AGRI CULTURAL PERIODICALS, AND SOCIETIES. The January number of this monthly publication, being No. 1 of Vol. 3, has been laid upon our table, nnd wo Intvn perused ils principal contents with much gratification. Tho paper is published ;it tho villugti of Rome the circumstances fioin which its title is in part taken, nnd where two of ils conductors, Messrs. B. P. Johnson and E. Comstock, reside ; their estinii iblo anil intelligent associate, Mr. C. N. Benicnl, being ;i resident of Albany. They urn nil sensible men, ol sound judgment and tipo experience, who, in their ngriciillural voca tion, as in their other lelalions us men iiiitl citizens, combine practice nut! precept; mill they iiini especially to give their paper it similar character, that it may thus hu belter suited lo tho circumstances and wants of the majoiily of our farming, who have, during most of tho year, but little lei sure fur study, ami who, therefore, need that the information designed for their benefit be presented for the most part in u plain mailer-of-f.icl form, ready prepared fur immediate use, whenever they liuvi! occasion or incli nation to apply it. Tho piper is in tho ordinary octavo pamphlet form, most con venient fur preserving nut! binding, with 32 paces to encli number, and at the reniaikably s nail pnen of 50 cents 11 year. Publications oflliis kind harmonize admi rably with the objects and the operation of Agricultural Societies', nnd both arc in many ways eminently fl. Tim .. in s mho leiniirks on commencing their thin volume, observe that nioie improvement Ins been made in nearly every department of husbandry, in this state, dining I tit; last five years, than in any previous equal peiiod, and they nsciiht! Iliu fart to the influences of iliu two causes mentioned. Tin; obser vation cannot, wo believe, he justly disputed ; antl lor the excitement of this spiiit of im provement uniting tho f.iriueis, not they alone, but tlio whole community also, aie under weighty obligations to tho public- spirited and enlightened men who have put such wholesome influences in million. Tlieso good influences are by no means limited to tho improvement nf tho soil and thostocl; of the farmer, and the enlargement of their increase. A still moro impoitant and more precious improvement is that which tho farmer himself expel ienccs. Tho accu mulation of now nnd valuable facts, the knowledge of new :md belter methods of applying labor, and the clearer insight into tho principles on which the results ho is seek ing depend none of theso things can be attained, without benefitting Ins mind s much as his crops, or his cattle ; nor without extending the range of Ids ideas nnd giving a rieater practical anil productive vnluo to Itis thoughts ; because by being enabled to think moro intelligently, bo is enabled to obtain more beneficial results from tho same expenditure of money and labor. Thus, by one and the sauiu process he improves his crops. Ins stock, his fields, and his mind. All this is done, too, nut by turning away from his proper labors, or by snrrificin" any of tho linit) necessary fur the duo execution ..v .... , uil (HU lUIIIIMI , ,,j .. .,,, .Hum amci aiteuiion to Ins ca l- ing. Instead of being required to quit Ids proper pursuits and go elsewhere, fur n time, lo procurti the benefits proposed, those pur- suns imisii.uiu inu very school in which only can lioiearu what it behooves liim lo know; for it is the moro full, exact, and thorough knowledge of tho facts, methods, and princi plus belonging lo his occupation, which con stittiles the lesson he is lo leant, and ho can learn it, only by habits nf moro nlteutivo observation nnd 111010 diligent nnd earnest sludy than over, of tho identical subjects on which ho has already determined to bestow iliu chief thought and labor of his life. This is by no means all. Uy ihus fur nishing iliu whole class r. husbandmen the small propiiotnriind the day-laborer, its well us t!iu wealthier, moro educated untl more extensivo land-holder with fuller supplies nf useful knowledge respecting the princi ples nnd details of llio one great occupation common to them l j,is storing mid fertilizing their mini,",, thoughts nnd facts, new views and .1 w.def rnngo of ideas appertaining to the pursuits in which thr-y havo a common interest, they nro enabled to meet on moro equal nnd thereforo more iigrceablo terms; ihcir 'occasional associa tion, instead of being n burden tudious alike lo them ull nnd avoided its much as possible, bocomcs moro frequent because moro iitlrac tiye, and more beneficial because more intel ligent j each has something to say, sonic ra tional observation to make, or somo now fact to communicate, in which the other has an interest ; tho whole tone and character of their intercourse is improved; their vicinity to each other, instead of being a mutual an noyanco, is regarded with satisfaction, nnd becomes matter of congratulation ; a spirit of intelligent curiosity nnd rational inquiry, takes pl.ico of the dulness nnd gloom of stagnant ignorance, nnd the. neighborhood puts on it blighter and morn cheerful face, Nothing relieves labor from the depressing character of drudging and repulsive toil, and nothing can thus relievo it, but the associa linn wiili it ufiliat spirit of intelligence which disposes tho laborer to observe tho relations between causes nnd effects that inquisitive and reflecting spirit which leads him lo study tho reason of what ho tloes. Once enable Iiini to connect tho intelligent action of his mind with the heavy tasks to which he ap plies his hand let his understanding com prehend something of the principles of tha various processus in which he is employed, anil something of tho manner in which the results ho is daily bunging to pass, nru pro ducedespecially let lit tn havo instruction mill nil to perceive ami appreciate something ot thu moro general bearings of his daily oc cupations their wider social relations as well as their particular private and individual benefits let him have mental light enough to discern something of the larger scope of his pursuits mid to feel something of their higher motives, and his labor forthwith ceases lo he mere drudgery, or hard and de pressing toil; thu bolter and more elevating facilities of his nature are called into exer cise ; ho censes to bo littlo morn than a strong and obedient animal machine moved chiefly by the will and intelligence of anoth er, and lises to the character and condition of 11 iruu man, with a self-directing spirit, convening his daily tasks into some of the best means life can furnish fur llie education! of his mind and tlio formation of a manly character. Thu Viiltio of this mental development of this acquisition of useful practical knowl edge, and this enlargement of the circuit of thought, for (he husbandman, is not to be measured only by the larger crop of niiito- lal ant external benefits (litis produced; for. with increased intelligence in his business. and the more skillful and profitable manage ment ol Ins alTiirs, comes a more iust and elevated estimate of the real importance of Ins calling, of Ins own social position, and of the truo grounds of his claim of respect a higher because a moro enlightened cnpiy meiit of his pm stilts a clearer perception of tho viii ions advantages of his lot in life a more profound, and earnest legard for tho institutions, laws, morals, and civil order, by which so many private and domestic bene fits are guarded and preserved and a livelier sense and n heartier acknowledgment of the blessings flowing aroung him. Tho dullness and gloom of ignorance and the murmur of a sullen discontent give place to cheerful satisfaction with a condition ill which his increased intelligence discovers so many means of improvement and rational enjoy ment ; his private, domestic, and social du ties nro more faithfully and efficiently per formed ; tho community finds a better citi '.'.011, and life a betlor man. Such iiro a few hasly suggestions of the happy results that flow from well conducted agiicultural papers (indwell managed agri cultural societies, to the members of the great productive class for whose benefit ihev nro designed ; and similar icsulis are equally attainable by tho members of all other work ing classes, for they arc results which flow from thu union of intelligence, a lovo of knowledge and a spiiit of improvement, with labor the co-operation of the mind with the hands. Alb. Daily Adv. DANA'S PRIZE CSS.W ON MANURES. Continued. Let iisannly.,,,, plant. Do not bo start led at the word. To analyze, means lo separate a compound substance into ,U s(lv. eral substance which form it. This ,,lv be u., ,.y ., p.rtic.ilar untl minute, or by 11 inure enner.i . . - lor o ... ..,,, 11 inav no ( inn. our present iiiinuun 1.., ., s,.v.. .i i, ; ri-""""" '"' s 01 a piatii min cl.i isses iiimpoiintis. v om nium s. You .,n. r i ... . iih!CI. lo undertake , , , , V T"" n null., vou liavti ah!, id.. "',,W ! eiloti ill a".! our purpose. tl. t ists I. id ., verv i'li i ii I ,1! i. . . . .. . : r .i ' ? 111 matter r eieinenis iii. i,,r ..nnl i ... . i. Not", by dm vou separate plants into three elon.en.s. You are, reader, (hough perhaps you do not knnw it, soa.nwhal of a practical chemist. Whenever you have burned a charcoal-pit what diJ you ? yu separated tho , into ah, 'waler, and eanh. on drove off bv heat fir., .i... a. ' niw iiiu niry or volalilo pai Is of , plant ; you left its carbon or coal: if you hail burnt tins, you would have left xi si ics. Now Illicit ficli os aro iho earthly pans of plants, 'if you moil eieeii suck ol wood, you drive off first lis waler and volnlilu , . -t . . - . - vii IUJIII s'oi. ion uurn its cm linn, mill I.xifjk ti. ashei or salts. So that by simply burning, ynu reduce the substance or elements of pnuiis hi water, caruon, salti. All plants, then, without exception, con. tain the several substances in our list above as water, carbon, and salts. To apply tliis knowledgo to manure, we must s,,y ,, wnr,' on the form in which somo of ihnse, which wn can the elements of plants, exist in them. The sap is water; it holds, dissolved in ii some sails of the plants. This sap or juico forms a pretty largo proportion of tho roots say soventy-fivo 10 eighty parts in one hundred of potatoes, turnips, b;cts, &c This may bo called the water of vegetation. If wo dry beetroot, or any olhci plant, we merely drivo o(T this water of vegetation. Now what have wo left? To go back to our process of analysis, let us clur the dried root. Wo drive off more water ind volatile parts. 1 Jus water did not exist as such in the plant. It existed there as hydrogen nnd oxygen gas. Now tins word casis a chcni ical term, nnd it moans any substinco in va por, winch cannot be condensed 1110 a liquid orsolid at common temperatures. Different gases may unite, and so beconc solids or liquids. Steam is not gas, for it is tho va por of waler, and immediately returns to the state of water, below 212 deg'rees. Pel feet steam is invisible ; so are most gases. The air we brealho is composed of two gases, oxygen and nitrogen. We do not too them wo cannot by cooling or comjression make air take other shape than iivisiblc air. This is the general property of gas as distinguished from vapor or steam. Ovvgen and hydrogen in plants exist in just ths'pro pnrliou lo form water, but we do liolnow lltat they arc nulled in these proportions. Wo have compelled them lo unite by Seat ing the substance or root. Thu cnrbiii is by this same process consumed, and vou know, has thus formed carbonic acid. I3i- sides this, 11 pnrtitiu of tho carbon unites wilh somo. of (In; hydrogen of tho plmt. This forms light, inflammable air. Niw you may collect this light, infl imniable air in any stagnant water where plants are de caying. Decay gives exactly the saniu pro- nuns as are formed tin making charcoal. Decay is only slow combustion or humiiitr : no mailer whether we char the plant 01 leave it to decav ; wo obtain exactly tin same products as wo did by our una'lysit, 111.1t is, caruon and sails. IJul because there is nnl heat cnotirdi. wi leave by decav 11 portion of tho hvdroi'en md oxygen still united to the coal. A slow mouldering fun leaves products more like lliuso of decay. Decav is a slow moulder ing fire ; hence the products of the decav of plants are very aptly termed mould. It is thu product of a mouldering fire that is, 1111 imprereptible union of thu oxygen of the air with the carhnn of tho plant. a union so low that it gives out neither heat nor . AluJ ',!t " ls ln "s "'suits the same as if Tro had actually boon aeon nnd full. .Mould contains, then, a part of tho carbon, oxygen, anil liyilr.iu'on, or, if von like dm terms better, mould of soil consists of tho water and co il and salts of the nlanu Mould is truly manuie. If tlio mould of soil, ns it has thus been defined, worn separated from tho earthly portions of soil if it would denrive" that nf tin. power or growing crops. Hero then, we conic lo a broad distinction bcl.vecn soil 'inu manure. I ho soil is the caribou which plants grow. Tho mould is tho tiaiiuio of that soil. Tho soil is the cartnlv; the mould, that is, tho carbon and salts'togeth er, with thu elements of waler, an the veg etable part of arable land. But ihotigb the earthly pari, tlio soil, its it is usiiilly called, nets as a support, on which nlann ernw. it tloes nut play a merely mechanical part. It l...n ... .1 I 1 I . 11..3 ,1 ui3iiu.i,ueciucu, anu important action upon tho manure. The action is chiefly chemical; and tho fact that soils and ma nures do mutually ad'ecl llio growiig plant, is proved by tho circumstance, that the first plants which grew, derived tluir salts fiom the earth. But this chemical action o'" soil docs 1101 belong to tho present discnsiion. Wo can understand what manures a-o, without de ciding how they act. We cm theorize and guess about tho how of thiir action when we liavn learned what they arc. That is chiefly what the farmer want! to know. ' No wants to know what manure is, and what is liko lo act as a immure. To these points wo snail contino our present remaiks. Pointing out the great piinciplis applicable to all manures, Iliu nature of soils, and the manner in which they affect manures, must be left fur another essay. The vegetable or manure part of soil alone is lo bo now con sidered. Consider now, reader, tho great results lo which our analysis has led us: that a slow, mouldering fire gives us the stmo products as nro formed by decay ; that this is only a slow, nioulde'ring fire, and that mould, its product, is the natural manuro of plants. It follows, that whatever substance produces mould, that is, waler, carbon, and salts, may bo used instead of this natural Amonn it,,, s.,ts fun, in mould, somo are volatile, nnd are ens Iv dissolved oy water. Others are fixed, that is, not evaporating easily, or not at all, and aro qnilo insoluliht in water. Nun the first, or 1 " sniuuie, lust act when used in manuro. I hey net nuick nnd nru nuipUu done Pi... r....i 1 : 1.. 1 1 . J mi iiauii Mini iiiMiiuuin act slower Iln-'V list ItiiH'i'i-. Tim vnl.iiiln t.t ill. .,L ------ vi inu olje.nly stages ol arowth; thu fixed in tho la- i - , "'" 111 I U'ri".,ls' ' '"' prL';" 'M"rvMa "cl,on ""..pond ).ost o in tho hnost Oiiliroly i, . ' V. l"' .'-"".am. i uese ",u ",u ''"l"rl'"'t antl essenii.,1. Il is not so much t in veueiu i mni.1,1 ,.r that you waul, as the salts which it contains. I Ins is a well settled principle. Land which has undergone ihu skinning process old, worn out and run out land, still contains it very largo portion of vegelnblu matter; tho coal or carbon of mould without ils salts. Give Ibis worn-out land salts, nnd you may by these alone bring it back not only lo its first virgin fieshness, hut you may even by salts nluno make it fairer and richer that it was before i i ever cultivated it. Too much stress has been all along laid upon ilm kind nf soil. Go noy to " Flob," in West Cambridge : no belter firms or far mers, look ilio world through. Ask any of theso practical men whether tho sandy and gravelly soil of Old Cambridge Common, or even of Seokonk Plain, can bo rnado to boar ns rich crops as their land! Thoy will tell yon, yea. If your land will hold manure, muck il well, and it will bo ns good Now this holding of manuro be- ,Tn,er')er will bear in mind that Dr. Dana uc .TJtlL fUt''-"0' . . ... longs lo tho subject of soils, and throwing that out of consideration, it is found thai even lands which do not hold manure, which havo been worn out and exhausted by crop ping, hold Vet ft great deal of incntnliln rnnl of mould. They want sa Is. nnd somi-ibiiiir which will make this inert, dead vegetable maUer of tho soil, active. The mould is active in nronortion ns it is nmm nr Inci die. solved by water. Mould consists nf two parts; one is dissolved, though only in a slight degree, by waler; the other is not dis solved by waler. Some sul stances, howev er, do render mould very easily dissolved by water. Hence, if yon reflect n moment on these facts, it will be seen that mould itself, being valuable in proportion to tho ease with which water dissolves it, that whatever sub stance so enables mould to dissolve, may be added lo il, and thus increase ils value. Now the things which do (his aro the alka lies, soda, potash, and ammonia. These principles being well spilled, wo may enter on the consideration of each dif ferent manure. They will be valuable in proportion s tbn quantity at.d kind of salts each contains, added lo tho power they may have of producing by their decay substan ces which make their ninnM l,ill. N, (his last property, that is, the properly of iluuiltuLr 11 SIIIJSI ancn w I ril ln:il;rc mmilil soluble, depends wholly upon the nitrogen 01 1111: manure. 1 tits nitrogen, 111 the pro cess of decay, becomes volatile alkali, or ammonia. The word nmmnni:, tvttl rirrir so often in the present discussion, that wo , 11 1 . i. ...... siiouiti cnueavor to nx some delimit: idea lo it. You need not, reader, be acquainted with all ils chemical properties. I suppose cverv man who will be like! v in mini iIh.c remarks, has studied ammonia. It has been already said, that it gives tho peculiar pun gent smell to the common spelling bottle. This is volatile ammonia. It is always formed when animal or vegetable bodies decay. It has been alrendv said, nnd !s nmv rp. pealed in order that it may never bo forgot ten, that ammonia is formed liv the union of hydrogen and nitrogen. Hydrogen nnd iitrogen, two airs, nitrogen terming lour fflhs of tho air we breathe let that be bcrno in mind, and without going into the chtniisliy of ammonia further, or the mode of calculating how much ammonia a pound of nitrogen will make, it may be laid down, and must bo remembered, loo, that every pound of nitrogen may bo called two nnd a half pounds of sal volalile. nr smnllinn .-,lic of the smelling-bottle. Two and a half lbs. of volnlilu iimmoniii formed from one pound of nitrogen. If then we can deter mine, as chemistry may, how much nitrogen exists in or forms n nart nf manurn i,. o .,! a half times that will bo the ammonia of that manure. II then the vegetable pint of ma nure is. ns we have sniil. v.-ilnnMn nmt ..i;,.n 111 proportion lo its degree ol being dissolv . ,.,', " . V'" . " '. ",S:,,e:A " S"!, " 11!? easy solubility, wo inav safi.K- il.i.i tl, quantity of nitrogen in manure, is tho meas- r .1.- ....i ... . . uioui inu rmuu 01 us vcgetauio part. Unc thing must bo guarded nonius! nnt in nliin. from this view tlio wliolo'of the valuo of ma nure upon its ammonia. Remember that manure consists of enrbnn. wmer. .nnd cnlic The whole aro equally essential to its action 1 nereis no eve. nor ear. imr dmi i,,n- l,,wt in manuro which may say to tho other mem- ' uers, i nave no need ol thee. 1 Ho whole act together : hut it ic nnt tn tin flmilil ...I il..,i :.. :. .1... I r .... .... , I ..v. iiiki .minium, i is inu nean 01 manure, anu keeps up the healthy circulation among the other members. (To be continued.) Tiom the American Agriculturist. NOVEL METHOD OF WORKING BUTTER. A VCrV Useful and tnnnninno ntniln ,f.. trading whey from butler, was recently rela- leuiomu uy a gciitieniaii who had resided many years in the grazing districts of France; and he informed mo that a similar apparatus 's iit present in successful operation, near bv here, in this Stale, nlihough 1 havo not yet seen it. Ho described it in a manner that could not fail to be understood to anv farmer in (he Union. - The machine, he represented, as made of woou, in torni not much unlike a grindstone, closely fitted into a trough, leaving a space between tho stone nnd bottom of tho troii'di not exceeding a sixteenth of an inch in thick ness. Tho trough is first filled with clean water saturated with salt, ono end of which is crowded full of tho nowly-cliurned butter. Then the stone is put in motion by means of the crank or otherwise, and the butler is drawn beneath it, and comes out at the other end of tlio trough in thin sheets, not more than one lGth of an inch in thickness, almost entirely freetl from tho whey, nnd for com mon uso requires no further salting. The brino thus prepared, has another verv im portant offico to perform. It imbibes, by chemical affinity, ull the whey wilh which it comes in conlaci, and leaves thu butter itself. Although this apparatus isoxtremely rude mill simnle. it is obvious In sin iniii.niniu .., chanic, how easily such a machiuo could ho improved upon, tind answer u tenfold pur pose, j. Another terrible inst.mrn nf mnr;r.,-, force bursting n grindstone, occurred at "ho U. S. Water Shop on Monday last. When going wilh immense vidnriiv It li,,ri ........ ono half going through tho side of tho shop :mrl nviif ilm it,....! . t i ivltCrO It l(l(ltF(.fl. Tim nilinr I. .If ' vi. IHU IIVJI11I III Ull) IlIlllMVim M-1I1L' about 400 lbs. burst through tho floor above0 ClltliutF a sleennr !,'. i, 1 .. t o i "i ir, ntc u OHM SlClll. Thn man ivlm un nriiwIWr. i. i... i . . " b'""K " uiu siunij, ii.iti stepped one sidn h moment was saved. Several workmen abovo e floor, when the s.nne hurst through, narrow- n inu 1 1 ilia mi iiiu nnriiiim mw i . i.;. i.e. ty escapeu. opnngJieM Kep. 20th. " England lasts Tina Vrtt,U n n : tne tear round .' "in 1B33. no fewer than .... arv i . I- , . -""....nn iiate America ! I have loved nnd inn- 800 me chant ships ; or a thirteenth part of ored America all my life ; d in the the whole number of ship, belonging , ,,e 6urgA 1fvieionni a o'ppor.uni, t w , Drilish dominions, inrhidintr tho d antat nn.L...b.. t r ' .... . ' i. , . r.rftr,,hOTL LyMr numo.r o( lost vessels tvat atwul 700. I THE REV. SYDNEY SMITH UPON RE DIATION. The Rev. Sydney Smith, whoso petition to congress on the subject of repudiation, excited so much interest on both sides of tho Atlantic from its tierceness and point, has addressed a letter to the London Morning Chronicle on the same subject, which is distinguished by tho an thor's well known characteristics of stylo. It may bo of some service to repudiators to know what is thought and said of them by such a man as tho Rev. Sydney. Among other things he says : " I am no enemy to America. I loved and admired honest America when she respected tho law of pounds, shillings and nonce; and I thought tho United States the most magnificent picture of human happiness. I meddlo now in those matters because I hate fraud because 1 pity tho misery it his occasioned because I mourn over tho hatred it has excited against free institutionr. 0 Among the discussions to which the moral lubricities of this insolvent people have given birth, thoy have arrogated to themselves the rinlll nf KitthtrV in imlirmnnl .innn ll. of their creditors of deciding who among them i9 rich, and who is poor, and who aro proper objects of compassionato payment : but in the name oi iuercury, 1110 great gou ot tlnevcs, did any man over hear of debtors alledging tho wealth of tho lender as a reason for eluding the pnyment of the loan ) Is the Stock Ecbange a place for the tables of tho nioney lenders ; or III it n Crll inl far InnrnHcle irlm ... o ,r n ..... ... .1.. ... .... (lky UIIIUII.U llll." rich, exalt the poor, and correct the inequalities of fortune ?" But the onlv good nart of this bad mnr.iliiv is not acted upon. The rich nro robbed, but the nnnr nrn not n.iM t!in .rmn.l n.-tii.i ,t.n a:..: donus of Dives, and don't lick the sores of Liz- arus. j noy seize, with loud acclamations, on tho nioney bags' of Jones, Loyd, Rothschild and Baring, but thov do not rriln brick- tho nitt.lncn of tho widow, and tho bread of tho child Those knaves of tho selling sun miy call me rich, for I hao a twentictii part of the income of tho Archbishop of Canterbury ; but the cu. ui inu iiuxi parisn is a wrotcneii soui, bruised bv adversilv: nnd tho thrno lmndrnl pounds for his children, which it has taken his lilo to save, is oaten and drunken by tho moan mnri nf Pnmici'li", n i-i Ktr ,.mii m-I... -n .1 talking of the honor and virtue of the United htatcs by men who soar above others in what they siy, and sink below all nations in what tllPV flnU-llfV ftffnr .in f Itn I..!...!, nf declamation, fall down to fold on the offal and garoagc ol tlio earth." The following passages aro as severe as lan. guago can well make them whether moro fo vcro than just we leave tho reader to judge. It may be observed, however, that it is quilotime to have things called bv their right names since under tho oupbonius, repudiation, some may toso sight of tho enormity of an act of swindling perpetrated by a Commonwealth. If additional flagrancy can bo added to di-iionesty beyond its own inherent turpitude, such aggra. vation is exhibited when a State, exercising the (unctions of legislation and of iurisnrudon c.n in 01 jusucc. anu claiming to bo on 2 tho civilized and christian co, the name of justice, and claiming to bo on? of the world, deliberately violates its faith, nnd by its voluntary act defiles tho fountain of its own justice at the source of legislation. But we leave the Unglish satirist to speak : . I never moot a Pennsylvania at a London dinner without a dis. position to soizo and divide him ; to allot his heaver to ono siil!ercr and his coat to another to appropriate his pocket handkerchief to tho nrnli in. nnrt In riimlM.! ilm ...1.1 :. I. I.: . ..... watch, Broadway ring?, and the London Guide, wiicu ne anvays carries ill his pockets. How sur.u a man can sot nmisoll down to ail Iin"lish tal,lc, without feeling that he owes two or three pounds to each man in company,! am at a loss to conceive : ho has no moro right to cat with honest people than a leper has to eat with clean men. If ho has a particle of honor in Ins com. position, ho should shut himself up, and say " I cannot mingle with you, I belong to a degraded poople I must hide myself, I am a plunderer from Pennsylvania." Figure to yourself a Pcnnsyvanian receiving foreigners in his own country, walking over the public works with them, and showing thorn Lirtcnous Lake, Swindling Swamp, Crafty Ca nal, and Rogues Railway ; and other dishonest works. "This swamp wo gained (-iys tho patriotic borrower) by the repudiated loan of 182. Our canal robbery was in 1SJJ0; wo pocketed your good people's money for the rail road only last year." All this inav seem verv smart to the Americans, but if I had the misfor. tune to be born among such a people, the laud of my fathers should not retain mo a single mo. ment after tho act of repiidiilinn. I would ap. peal from my fathers to my forefathers. I would fly to Newgate for greater purity of thought, and seek in tho prisons of Ungland for bettor rules of life." Svdncv Smith, aoain-. The following appeared in tho London Sprctator, of the 25th of November, as tho reply of Sydney Smith lo a loiter of Duff Green : " Having boon unwell for some days past, I havo had no opportunity of paying my respects to Gen. Duff Green, who (wlnftever bo his other incrilsl h .'is rnrl:iinli imt linti-i himself to Lo a Washinmon in ih-fenco of ins country, i no ueneral demands, with a beautiful simplicity, ' Wnr.Ncr. this .moisiiid itATttr.rj or Amhrica V Hut this question, all affecting as it is. is stolen from I'ilpav's fables. ' A fox,' says I'ilpay, caught bv the leg in a trap near tho farm yard, uttered the most piercing cries of distres's ; forlhwiih ull Iho birds of tint yard gathered round him, and seemed lo delight in his inUfortunu ; hens chuckled, geese hissed, ducks quacked, and chanticleer with shrill cockadoodles rent the air.1 ' Whence,' saitl the fo, steppiiv forward, wilh infiniln nraviie. t ,nl,rrj. morbid hatred of the fut? What havo I 'tone I hum have I injured I am over whelmed with astonishment at these symp. loins of aversion.' Oh, you old villain, Iho poultry exclaimed, ' wheru aro our duck lings 7 Wheru are our nosliniTs ? Ill, I I , ,r " lol"s nf aversion I' see ou running away yesterday with mv m ,;r ,n "T'' ' ", "1 "0l Ci" .Up f "V ri'UlT LMf w'ek 1 .You ""S1" to dio tho worst of deaths lo bo pecked into n thousand pieces.' Now, honce, Gen. Green, coin is tho morbid hatred nf America, as you term it. f f 1 hvnivC; ..ed topraisg and defend 2 Unt,eci c,.,M . and to evorv Amrrlran m whom I havo had tho good fortune to bo introduced, I havo proffered all the Itospitul tty in my power. Urn I cannot shut my eyes lo enormous dishonesty ; nor, remem bering Ihetr former stale can I restrain my self from rilllinn n,i tl. ...... .I 1. I Satan) to spring up from the gulf of infamy in Wllirll lltnU ftrn ...It:..- -., .no lulling 'Awake, nriso,or be forever fal'en.' " I am astonished lint the honest states of America do not draw a Cordon Sanitairt round their unpaying brethren, that the truly mercantile New York honest people of Massachusetts, do not ii their European visils wear an uniform with S. S., or Solvent States, worked in gold let ters upon iho coat, and receipts in full of all demands nn iln.i- ...t ' " - , i'Ul.ll.UUI3, UIIU our own property figured on their pantaloons. " But the General seems shocked that I should say tho Americans cannot go to war without money: but what do I mean by war? Not irrniilinn intn,t ...... -WU..UUM nut embodying of militia in Oregon, but a long, tedious maritime war of four or fivo years duration. Is any man so foolish as to sup pose that Rothschild has nothing to do with such wars ns theso? and that a bankrupt stale, without iho ling in the world, may not bo crip'nled io I. . .1 nr a. . 1 .' sum .i (.oiliest i vc an nnow that tlio Americans can fight. Nobody doubts their courage. I see now in my mind's eye a whole army on tlio plains of Pennsylvania in battle array, immnosn mmc r,r :.,.. t.... , , , ' w.j.j , llliui.tllll is it infantry, rct'imonts nf Iimto !,o ,l,.i. b ,1 . . j ai mill- tors, batiallions of rcjtudialors, brigades of uaiiKrupis, unit v ivro sans paypr, ou mourir on their banners, and acre alieno on their their trumpets ; all theso desperate debtors would flL'Ilt to tho death and probably drivo into tlio sea their inva- .1: ti. . umg creuuors. ji ineir courage, 1 repent il"nill. I h;ivr! nn dnntit T ...i.l. I l.H.l 3 ..lan lliiu IIIIT same confidence in their wisdom. But 1 helievo they will become intoxicated by the flattery of unnrincitiled of entering wilh us into a noble competition in making calico (the great object for which the An;:lo Saxon race appears to have been createti,; uicv win waste their happiness and their money fif ihev cm crnt nml ;. nr. nr silly, bloody, foolish, and accursed war, la prove to the world that Perkins is a real fino gentleman, and that the carronades of tlio Washington steamer will carry farther than thosn of iho British V fCtnrill. nr llm T? nlm., . , ...w...., vl ...v, nuuwn Peel vessel of war. "It may bo very truo that rich and edu cated men in Pennsylvania wish lo pay tho debt, and that tho real objectors aro tlio uuicii anu ucrman agricultuiut, who can not ho made to understand tho effect of character upon clover. All this inav bo very true, but it is a domestic quarrel. Their church wardens of reputation must make a nrivato rate nf inf.imv f,.r,.. I J IV. .III. ,11311 US VU have nothing to do with this rate. Tim real quarrel is the Unpaid Wot Id versus Penn sylvania. "And now, dear Jonathan, let me beg of vou to follow tho- ad Vl(n nf n rvl fr'nnA ibin llll.liu who will say to you what Wat Tyler had not the virtue to say, and what all "speakers in tho eleven recent Pennsylvania elections havo cautiously abstained from saying, 'mako an effort ! llnntr nn nt nnm .....1 ...r v.. . , ... w)1. .tin. J..IJI 1 ou have no conception of the obloquy "and con- ii.uiii iu which joii iire exposing yourselr all over Ettronn. Itoll U n-,tr-.ll.. ,'i: l i - - ........ ..ii ui?iust:u to love oil : but ho loves nobody who does not pay him. His imaginary paradise is sonic planet of punctual payment, where- K.-.i.ij iiiuuuy prevails, unu where cJcbt niicl discount aro unknown. As f,.,- ,.. , .... .u, iiil, 11 3,U as I hoar that tho last farthing i, prijd to the 1... ....... l:.-.. i .mi . ' I..3H.K.UI1UI , i win appear on my Knees at the bar oftho Pennsylvania Senate, in tho plu- nioopicean robe of American controversy. Ivich conscript Jonathan shall trickle over mo a few drops of tar, and help lo decoralo ..... ...i.i. .i i .... .... mw iiii iiiusu (joiiui pinnies in which tho vanquished reasoner of tho transatlantic world does liomatro to the nhi of his opponents. And now, having eased my soul of ils indignation, nnd sold my stock at 40 per cent, discount, I sulkily retired from, the subject, wilh a fixed intention of lending nu niuiu iii.jiiuv iu iieu ami cniigntunea re liublics. hut of cntnloviniT mv mnm. l,nn. . , . ' , r---"p. "V J iii.iii.c- rorth in buying up Abyssinian bonds, and. purchasing into tho Tiiikish Fuurs, or tho Tunis Three and a Half per cent, funds. SYD.NEY SMITH." OaiaivAt. runciiAsn of tiic island cr Nf.w or.K. We furnish below to theroadora of the Northern Lit'lit. an minmctinr. ,.,i n --. ...... .... ..iiu LIIIIUUS letter, recording aireuig other important events. tho purchase of the Inland of Manhattan, two hundred and ffvonto.-n nr. i.,. ,i, r...i. from the Indians, for tho sum of 'sixty guilders! ... inviii.iaui uuiur : i no tract conveyed fortius sum contains 1-1,930 acres .orutern iiign;. Wc omit tits on'cinal. translation-. Iliiih and miohtv Ijinls Voi tllC Silt I) ' TJlQ Ami nt Amain.-,)-.,,, . 1, from tho R.vcr MannMiis Iludsonl in tie Now- tii-uiriiaiMi uii onpteiuuer. l hey rcprrt that OOr fi-kn llinip run iirniimmi.. lr. peace ; their women have borne children thero already; they have purchased from tl.o Indians lor the nun of sixty "itililers the Island M'an Intton, which is 11,000, morgan hr -o. They havo already sown train by llio midJle of May and reapt by the tiudiJIo of August ; sampJes of Miiuwer crois luve come, such as wheat, rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, canarv seed, beans anil llav. 1 .'snil r:iii.vv Amsterdam, 5, Nov. Ifi30. N.'irVT Itl-lVC A frnllA.nA ...1... I . .... . ...... ktnini.iii uu nay trav ersed a largo portion of the Indian country of Northern Tnvn-i. uml tlm T..: . ;, ' - ,.unu, iin ueiwetn bante I-o and the l'icfic, niforins Iho ctlitors of mo Houston I olograph that lliero are vemife of ancient cities ami ruined temples on Iho Uit Puerco and Colorado of the West. On one o the branches of tho H,(, Puorco, n fvw day travol frnin S ml.i T ilm.. I. .1. ' l .....u in an (IIIIIIL-IIO UI of ruins that appear to belong to an ancient iuiiijih.-. 1 oe nimning- occupies noarlv an aero of ground portions of the wall are still tml. ing, coiifibinig nf large blocks of limeunn regularly hewn, and laid iu cement. The ruins, boiragrcat resemblance lo those ct Pdi,qu.e or Otolun. There ar mjitv similar ruin Ton the To nndnnf ,ha Ve', which cnmtie into. Ihn ft 1 a ni.-i Mni.l.... ,l. 1.. 1 . , . . . . . imnjiis m vicinity, nor the oldest Spanish ictthut-of tho

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