Newspaper of The New York Herald, December 7, 1844, Page 2

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated December 7, 1844 Page 2
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When it niijht, would endanger the general peace, and hair Bach Mexico might be the loeer by it. la tho mean iii?*,the condition of T>iu would be render ed uncertain, Uer settlement end prosperity in conse quence retarded, an J bei commerce crippled, while the fyaerai jwa.e would bj rendered much mure insecure. : could i.ot but greatly sifdct ua. li the annexation of Texas should be |?rmuted to take place p^oooably now, (as it wuuli, wuuouiihe interference ol otner powers,) me eurr^iu ul our people would, fur along tune to come, be directed to tue puc jabi? pursuit* ol redeeming, aud bun<in< aritniu Uiu pole ol cultivation, improvement* aud ci? an tiiou, in it large portion ul tne continent lying b.-uvee.i .tleXtc > o.i oue aide, aud tne Biitish possessions ou the other, wnich u uow, wuu little exception, a wil derness with a sparse population, consisting, tor the moat part, ul wandering indiaii tribe* it i.ourdeitiujr to u.'.oup, tint vast regiin; to intersect it with roads an I canals; to hll >t with dtius, towus, vtl la|M,md larms; to exteudoverit our religion, customs, constitution an I lawn; aud to preaeut it as .1 pei. elul aud apleniid addition to the domains ol couiuieice and civi lisation. It 1a our policy to increase, by growing aud (presiding out into unoccupied regions, assimilating ail we mcoiporate; iu a word, to increase by accretion, and not, through conquest, by the addrion 01 masses held to gainer by trie cuuesion of lorce. No?ylitem cau be more unsuied to the litter proceaa, or better adapted 10 the former, thau our admirable lederal system. It it should not he resisted iu ita course, it will probably fulfil ita dea tiny without disturbing our neighbors, or putting in jeo pardy the general p< ace; but if it be opposed by foreign luierleieice, a new direction woul I be given to our eoer gy. much loss tarorable to harmony with our neighbors, to tne geueitl pence ol the world. Che ci inge would be 11 desirable to us, an I much 1> a* io x ooidauce arith >1141 I uave a-sutiiaU iu- b primary o"j 0.1 ui policy on tbe part ol Krauoe, Engiund, aud M-xi o. d it to d< * 10 pat'icuUr': it ia cenain that while E a-vd, K? Kri ioe, de?ir.s tn? 1 dope d. ne o' i'exa>, 1.'1 . ta view to c .iii ueraiil connexion., it lanot iea? ??>, 11 -me oi iiie lend >g motlvea or Ennlsnd d -mug it, i.the u.ipethti, 'in usli her tiipi macy and iuti 1 nc-, Uegru *1 iVeiy m iy b ? h .lishi d there it. d ullieialei) , by cu ? ? q leuoe, ia l1* United tjtiis and throughout the while i.f tiki * c.uun lit That ita Ultimate ab >11 i hi thr <u<nuut the cu ire continent ia an object ardently de sired by u r, we have deciiv. proof iu ilia ducUrati m ul tne Eir) i.f Aberdeen delivered to this dep .nm.nt, uud i f which you will fiiid a espy umong <he docu ineuta trdn,united to Congress with tue 1'exiao ueaty.? Thut >he deairea ita abolition in Texas, and haa used her iiidnenCH and diplomacy 'o eltect it there, the name docuHi' nt, with the correspondence of this department with Mr. PaHenbaa*. siao to be lound among the docu ine.iU, lurm>h *? pioof not less coucluxive. That one of 1 He obj. cta of ubuiishiug it there, ia to facilitate ilsuboli lion iu the United States, aud throughout the continent, is maniUst fium the declaration ul the abolition party aud Mtcieties, b >th iu this country and iu England. In fact, there is goo.', reason tu believe that the scheme tf abul i'hi'ig 1, iu Ttxa*, wi h the view to ita uhjliiiou in the United St itt a and over the continent, oii^inated with the promi.ient Mem here ?f the inrty it the United Stales; and wan fl'st broach* d t/>" th-ni iu the (so called) World 'a Ci/uvxuiion, held iu L :cdouiu iheyear 1841', und through its agency brought to the notice of the Biitish govern ment Now, I hold, not only that Prance can Lave no interest in tue consummation of this grand scheme which England hopes to accomplish through Texas, il she cau anient the annexation ; but that her in terest, and those of all the continental powera of Europe, are directly and deeply opposed to it ft is too late in the day to contend that humanity or pUilaothropy is the grtat object of the policy ol England in attempting to abolish African slavery on this continent. I do nut question but humanity may him been one of her leading inotivos fir the abolition of the Aftiean slave trace, aud that it may hive had ? considerable influence in ubolisiiing slavery in tier West India d issessiona ? aided, indeed, hy the fallacious calculation tnat the labor ol the negroes would b>* at loait us profitable, il not mere no, in councquence of the measure. She acted on the prin ciple that trupical products can bo produced cheaper by tree African tabor an t Kast India labor, thin by slave labor. She knew full well the valuo of such product* to her commerce, navigation, navy, manufactures, reve nue, and power. She was not Jcnoraut that the support of her political prtpmderauce depended on her tropical possessions, and hud no intention of diminishing their productiveness, nor any snticipa ion that such would be the effect, when thn scheme ol abolishing slavery in her colonial possessions was adopted. On the contrary, she ealcula'ed 10 combine philanthropy with profit and pow er, as is not unusual with fanaticism. Experience has couviucsl her of the fullacy of her calculations. She lias failed in all her objects. The labor ol her negroes has provod /ar less productive, without affording the consola tion ol haviog improved their condition. Tbe experiment has turned out to be a costly one. She txp.jnded nearly one hundred millions of dollars in in demuifying the owners of the emancipated slaves. It is estimated that|the increased price paid since, by the people ofOreat Brit tin, lor sugar and other tropical productions, in cousti]uence ol the measures, is equal to half that sum ; n I that twice that amount has been expended in the sup pression ol the slave trade; making together, two hundred and lift y millions of dollars as the cost ol the experiment, lustead of realizing her hope, the result has been a sad disappointment. Her tropical products have fallen off to a vast amount. Instead ol supplying her owu wants and those of nearly nil Europe with them, as formerly, she has now, in some of the most important articles, scatcely enough to supply her owo. What ia worse, her own colo uies are actually contuming sugar produced by alave la bor, brought direct to Englund, or refiaed in bond, and exported and sold in her colonies as cheap or cheaper than taeycai be produced there : while the slave trade, in stead of diminishing, hua been in tact carried on to a great er extent thau ever. So disastrous has bet 11 the result, that her fixed capital vested in tropical possessions, esti mated at the value of nearly fire hundred millions of dol lars, is said to stand on the brink of ruin. But this is net the worst While tbWcostly scheme has had such ruinous ell' cts on the tropical productions of Oreat Britain, it has given, a powertul stimulus,loliowed by a corresponding increase of products, to those coon triea which have nad the giml sense to shun her vxample. There haa been vested, it is estimated by then, ia the producii >n ef tropical produc's, tince 1908, in fixed capital, nearly $4 om 000,000, wholly dependent on slave labor. In the same period, the value of their products his been estimated to have risen from about $7d,000,000 annually, to nearly $]20M4.u00 ; while the whole of tbe fix?d .capital of Great Biitain, vested in cul ivatiog tro pical products, both in the ??*' arid West Indies, i< rstimned at only about $S80,000,000, and tbe value of the products aunuaiiy at about $ jtl 000 000 To present u s'itl more stiiking vi w of thr.e articles o ttopical products, (sugar, coftee, and cotton,) the British posseasieus, including tbe West a id East In dies and Mauritius, produced, in ln42, uf sugar only 3,99i 771 pounds; whilo Cuba, Brazil, and the Uuited S ates, excluding o<her countries having 'ropicul posses sions produced 9 600,OOt) pounds; of coffe, the British possessions produced onlv 37,393 003, while l.uba and Brazd produced 'J01,b90,IJA pounds; and wf cotton, tbe B iti.h po?s*?aioiis, including shipments to China, only 137,443 441 pounds, while the United States alone produced 7JO 479 J7S pounds. Ths above facts and estimate' have all been drawn from u Br uah periodical of high standing and authority, and are believed to be entitled te credit. This vast increase 01 the capital and production on thr part of th ise nations who have continued their farmer puncy toward* the negio race, compared with that 01 Britain, indicates a corresponding relative inerease of the uieaua of commerce, naviga'ion, manufactures, wealth, und power. It is no longer a question of dtnbt, hat the great source of the wealth, prospeiity, and pow srof the more civilized nations ol the temperate zone, (es pecially Europe, wh?re the arts Wave made the greatest advance,) depends, in a great decree, on the exchange ol their products with those of the tropical regions So great has been the advauce made in the arts, both chem ical and mechanical, within the lew last generations, that all the old civilized nations can, with bat a small part of their labor and capital, supply their respective wants : which tends to limit within narrow bounds tbe amount of the commerce between them, and forces them all to seek for markets in the tropical regions, and the more n?wiy settled portions of the globe. Those who can best Hucceed in commanding those markets, bave the beat prospect ol outststripping the others in the career of com merce, navigation, manufactures, wealth, and powtr. This is seen and felt by British statesmeo, and has open ed their eyes to the errors which they have committed.? Tbe question now with them is, how shall it be counter acted I What haa been done cannot be undone. The question is, by what meana can Oreat Britain regain and keep a superiority in tropic 1 cultivation, commerce and infl lence I Or, shill that be abandoned, and other na tions be suffered to acquire the supremacy, even to the ex'ent of supplying British markets, to the destruction of the capital already vested in their production ? These are the questions w hich now profoundly occupy Ihe at tention of her statesmen, and have the greatest influence over ner councils. In ord r to regain her superiority, she not only seeks to revive and increase her owu capacity to produce tro pical productions, but to diminish and destroy the capa city of those who have so lar outstripped her in come quence of her error. In pursuit of tne former, she has cMt her eyes to her Esst India possessions?to central and eastern Atrica?with the view ol establishing colonies there, and even to restore, substantially, the slave trade itaalf, under the specious namti of transporting fr>e laborers from Africa to her West In*li? possessions, iu order, if possible, to compete successfully with those who have refuted to follow her suicidal policy. But these ail atfard but unoertain and distaut hopes of recovering her lost superiority. Her main reliance is on the other alternative--to cripple or destroy the prodnctions of her successltil rivals. There is but one way by which it can badone, and that is by abolish ing African slavery thionghout this continent; and that she openly avows to be the constant object of her policy and ex?rtions. It matters not how, or from what motive, it may bn done?whether it be by diplomacy, iufluence, or lorce; by secret or open means, and whether the mo tive be hum?ne or selfish, without regard to manner, means, or motive. The thing itsell, should it be accom plished, would put down all rivalry, and give her the undisputed supremacy in supplying her own wants and those ot the rest ot the world, and th ireby more than fully retrieve what abe haa lost by her error*. It would give her the Monopoly ef tropical produotion*, which I shall next proceed to show. What would be the conaequenee if thia *bj-et of her unceasing solicitude and exertions should be (fleeted by the abolition of negro slavery throughout this continent, some idei may fcefoimed from the immense diminution of productions, as baa boen ahown, which has followed abolition in her West India poaaaeeions. But, as great us that has been, it is nothing compared to what would be the ?ffect il she should succeed in abolishing slsvery in the United States, Cuba, Brazil, and throughout this con tinent. The experiment in her own colonies wss made under the most favorable circumstance*. It was brought .?bout gradually and peaceably, by the steady and firm operation ol the parent country, armed witn compete power to prevent or crush at once all Insurrectionary movemen's on the part of the negroes and able and dis posed to maintain to tho full the political and social as r en lency of tbe former masters ovur their former slaves. It is not at all wonderful that tha change of the relations ur matter sad sisvetook place under such circumstances, VLV0* an'' bloodshed, and that order and peace snonld hsve be,ii since preserved. Very diir-rent would be the result ol "boll-ion, should it be effivt-il by her in r?ion? In the possessions of other countries ? ifT MP*r-"??y In 'he United ntates, t^oiVatcultivator* or the principal * # Xs^ " A?"!0" To fornl ft concep L7^t.W0"MhVh' MTOlt wi'htliem, wn must ki not to Jamaica, Lut to Bt Domingo, for example. Theohaog* would ba followed by unforgiving hate be Ivmo the two rac??, and end in ? bloody eud struggle betweeu them firth* e*p?riorlty Oa#?rlh? other would bore to besobjajtatedjextirpat. d,or exp^led ?ad desolation would over?preaJ their lerutoriee, ?? ?" 81. Domingo, from which it would take centuries to it cover. '1 he end would ba, that the luperiority in cult - vating the greet tropical emples would be trauU-irred from hem to the BH i?h trvp cal p:>B?ee?ioiis. Tnev are of va.i extent, end tuo?e beyond the Gape ft O<od Hope itoitetard ot an unlimited amount oi l.Dor ?tending ready, by the aid of B.fuk capital, to supply the d licit which would be occanK-ued b> destroying the tropicni production* uf the United tttttii Cuba, Bran and ottter countries cultivated by slave labor on tin* con tinent, so noon m the increased price, in consequence. would yield a p/xifit. It ia the succ sslul competition of that labor which keeps the prtcea of the great tropical sta ples so low, as to prevent their witli profit in tbe possessions of Ureal Britain, by what she is pit used to call fre i labor. If she can destroy Its competition, she would have a monopoly in thoae productions. She has all the means ol lurnishing an unlimited supply ; vast and tortiie possessions in botu Indies, boundless command ol capital and labor, and ample power to supprtssoistuib. ances, and preserve order throughout her wide domains. It is unqiesiiouable, that she regards the aboliuou of slavery iu Texas as a most important step towards this great object of policy, so much the aim of her solicitude and exertion* ; and tne defeat of the annexation ol Texas to our Union hi indiipeD'ibk to the abolition iliv^ry there. SUe is too sagacious not to se? whit a iatal blow it would give to slavery in the Uulted States, and bow certainly its abolition with us would abolish it over th? whole continent, and thereby giv? her a monopo.y in 'hi pioduction* ol the great tiotmal staple*, aud the command of the com* m c? uHVigatiuli, and manu actuies of the world, with an esiuMinned n? a?c ndeucy and political pre uoiidri auce T? 0>s coniiu?-nt tn? blow i> ould be cala iniiuus bejond description. It would des ruj , in a graa m aau'e, (ue cultivation *i?d production ot ihe great tro ).icil ?i ple?, amounting eunualiy iu vaiue to neatly $3UOt"UOOOO (he lunJ which Miniulatvs aud upholds al 111 .1 ever* oth- r biau' h ol us industry,commerce, navi aaiion, and manuiactu'es The whole, by their joiut in HueiicM, are rapidly spreading population, weal'h, im ,iiov. nient, and civilization over the whole continent, aad vivify ing, by their overflow, tbe industry ol Europe ; inereby increasing its populations, wealth, and advance ment in the arts, iu power, and in ci vilization Such must be tne result, should Grest Britain succeed in accomplishing the constant objact ol her desire aud ex ertions?the obolitiou of negro slavery over this conti nent : and towards the effecting ol which she regards the deleat of the anuexition of Texas to our Uuiou 10 lUjpor tent. Can it be posihle that govenmentaso enlightened and aa^acioux us those ot France and the other great continen tal powers, can be so blinded by the plea of philanthto py as not to see what must inevitably l> How, l>e her mo tive what it mav, should ?h? succeed in her objects . it is little short rf mockery to tatk of philanthropy, with the examples before us ol tho rffacts of abolishing slave) y in her own colonies, iu 8t. Domingo, end ine northern States ol our Bnion. where statistical fact", not to be shaken, prove that the freed uegro, slier the i xpo rienca oi sixty yesre, is in a far wor e condition than in thi other States, where he has been leit it* his former condition. No: ihe tffict of what is called abolition, where the number is few, is not to raise the ii.fetur race to the condition of freemen, but to deprive the negro of the guaidian csreof his owner, subject to all the denies sion and oppresvioa belonging to hisinfeiior condi ion. But, on the other band, where the number is greet, and bears a large proportion to tbe whole population, it would be still worse. It would be to substitute lor the existing relation a deadly strife between the two races, to end in the subjection, expulfion, or extripation of one or the other: and such would be the case ovorkhelgreaterpartol this continent whereslavery exists It would not end there: but would in all probability ex tend, by its example, the war of races over all South America, including Mexico, and extending to the Indian as well as to the Atricsn race, and make the whole one scene of blood and devastation. . . , Diainieairg, tlicu, iti? uufvunflCfl plea OI pnl lanthropy, can it be that France and the other great con | tinental powers?seeing what must be the result of the policy, for the accomplishment of which England is con stantly exerting herself, and that tho deleat ol the annex ation of Texas is so important towards its consummation ?are prepared to back or countenance her in her efforts to effect eith r T What possible motives can they have to favor her cherished policy 7 Is it not better lor them that they should be supplied with tropical pro ducts in exchango for their labor, from the United Suites, Brazil, Cuba, and this continent generally, than to lie dependant on one great monopolizing power, for their supply? Is it not butter that they should receive them at the low prices which competition, cheup er means ol production, and nearness of market, would, furnith them by the former, than to give the high prices which monopoly, dear labor, and great distance lrom mar ket would impose ? 1? it not better that their labor should be exchanged with a new continent, rapidly increasing iu population and the capacity for consuming, and which would furnish, in the course of a lew generations, a mar ket nearer to th>m, and of almost unlimited extent; lor the products or their industry and arts, than with old and distant regions, whose population has long since reached it* growth 7 ... 1., Tue above contains those enlarged views ol policy which it seems to me, au enlightened European states man ought to take, in making up his opinion on the subject of tho annexation of Texes, and tha grounds, as it may be inferrrd, on which England vainly op poses it. They certainly involve considerations of the deepest importance, and demanding the greatest attention. Viewed in connexion with them, the ques tion of annexation becomes one ol the first mag nitude, not only to Texas and the United Sutes but to this continent aud Kui?|?. 't'hoy are premn ?| that you may use them on all suitable occasions, where vou think they may be with effect ; In your corrAHpopd ence, where It can be done with propriety or otherwise. The President relies with confidence on your sagacity, prudence, and real. Your mnsioti is oue of the first mag nitude at all imos, but especially now ; aud he icew u? aursd not lung will h? left Uii.louu an youvpait to do jus tice to the country and the government in reference to 'k'i'have said nothing as to our right of treating with Texas, without consulting Mexico. You so fully under stand the grounds on which we rest our right, and are so tamiiiar with aU the facta necessary to maintain Uiem, I that it was not thought necessary to add anything in re ference to it. , ,, I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient^er^nt,^ William R. Kino, Esq , Sc3. Ma. Shannon to Ma. Calhoun. [Extract ] Mexico, Oct. 38, 1844. Sia,?Your despatch of the 10th September last reached me oil the I Jth instant; and, in compliance with your in Htructions, I lost no time in addressing to the Minister of Foiegu Relations of this government a communication ? xprr?siv?> of the views of the President ol the United States in rel tion to a renewal of the war on tbe part oi vlexico against Texan, and to the manner in whicu it is prepoa d to be conducted. A<tcompany ing this despatch, you will find a copy ol this communication, man ed No I I have rtceived no reply, as jet, to this no'e. and can not say when one may b? expected Pr. sident Santa Anna is at bis hacienda, near Jalapa; aud until he can be heard from, no reply will be given. The uncertainty ol tbe ime when a reply will be received, has determined me to deiay this despstch no longer. ? ? ? ? * * ? __ Ma. Shannon to Mb- Rhon. Leuation or thi: Unithj States, Mexico, October 14, 1844 The undersigned, envoy extraoidinnry and minister plenipotentiary ol tbo United States ot Ametica, has tbe honor to inform his excellency M. C. Hejon, minister of toriisn relations and uoveinmeut of'he repuolic of Mexico, that the President of the United States has learned with deep regret that tbe Mexican government has an nounced its determination to renew the war against the republic of Texai, and is now engaged ia extensive pre paration* with a view vo an early invasion ol its territory ) and instructs the undersigned to protest, in the moat solemn form, both against lie invasion at this time, aad the manner in which it is proposed to be conducted. The orders ol the commander of tbe army of the north, (General Woll,) Wsued on the 20th of June last, and tho uecree of the provisional President of the Mexico, of the iTihof June, 1843, leave no doubt ai to the minner in which the war ii to be conducted The decree makes the general in-chiel of division cf the army, and the com mandan'-generalof the coast and frontier, responMble its exact fn filment. It was under this would seem, that General Woll,' to whom the Texan Irontier was assigned, issued his order of the 20th ot June. Alter announcing that the war was renewed against Texas ; that all communication with itroii't cease ; and mat every individual of whatsoever condition, who may nave communication with it. shall be regarded as a traitor, and, as such, punished according to the articles of war ; it states that every indivtdual who may be lound at the distance of one league from the left bank of the Rio Bravo will be regarded as ? favorerand an accomplice of the usurpers of that part of tha national territory, wd us a traitor to Mexico, and, after a summary military trial, nhall be putiish? d accoidingly. It also atates that evei y Individual who maybe embraced in the foregoiog, and who may be rash enough to fly at tha light of any torce belonging to tho supreme government, shall be pursued until taken or put to death. In what spirit the decree of the 17th June, which the Older is intended tw lullil, is to be extcuted, the fate of the party under Goneral Sentmanat, at Tobasco, Mffjrdi an il lustration. Undvr it, they were arrested and executed, without hearing or trial, against the express provision of the constitution and the sanctity ol treaties, which were in vain invoktdfor their protection. If the decree itself wai thus enlorccd, in tiireof peace, against the aubjecU of lereign powers, some laint concep tion may be formed of the barbarous and inhuman aplnt in which the order of Oeneri.1 Woll may be expected to he executed sgaiost the inhabitants of Texas, and all who may in any way aid th? ir causa, or even have commum cation with them . It was under a decree of a similar character, issued on th? 30 h of October, 1835, but not so comprehensive or barbarous in its provisions, that the execution ol Fannin anJ his pirty was ordered, in a firmer in vaaion. This decree waa limited to foreigners who should land at any port of Mexico, or arrive by Innd, and having hostile intentions, or who should intro duce arma or munitions ot war to be used at any nisei) in rebellion, or placed in the hands of ita enemies Highly objectionable as were iU provisions, the order of General Woll, intended to carry out that oI June, IS48 goes lar beyond It. It embrace* every Individual who may be lound east of a line drawn three miles east of the Rio Bravo, without diatinction of age or sex, foreign ers or citixans, condition or vocation. Allot every de. ?crlption are to bo treated as ttaltora It proclaims, in iliort, a war of extermination ; all are to be destroyed or driven out, and Texas left a desolate waste. Such is the barbarous mode In which the government I ol Mexico has proclaimed to the world it is her intention o conduct the war And here thw inquiry nit'irally ui?es,?what is her object in renewing at this time a war, to be thus conducted, which has been virtually ?u*j end "d for eight yearn, and when her tcsoarces are known ti> Dri so exhausted us to leave her without the means ot lul rilling her unprmtements7 But one object can be asaignerf, nnd that ia to the annexation ol Texas to the United Htstes. She knows tail well that the measure is still .'ending, and thut the rejection ol the treaty has but post iponed it. She knows that when Congress adjourned, it wm pending in both homes, ready to bo taken up and acted upon at its next meeting, and that it is at present actively canvassed throughout the Union. She i-i uot ig n-rant that the decision will in oil probability be in Ha favor, unless it ?hould bo defeated by sumo movement ex terior to the United States. The projected invasion of l'exus by Mexico, ut this time, is that movement ; and it is intended to ettect it, either by conquering and sot'jiiga ting Texas to her power, or by foicing her te withdraw^ n r proposition lor annexation! and to lorm other con." uux ons leas acceptable to her. The United States cannot, w hile the measure of a?nex tion la pending, stsnd quietly by. and permit either of these results. It baa been a measure ot policy longcher 1 bed, and deemed indispensable to their safety aud wel fare; and has accordingly been an object steadily pureued by all pai tiwa, and the acquisitieu ot the territory niB\e the subject ot negotiation hy almost every administration for the laat twenty years. This jK>licy may be traced to the belief, generally entertained, tbat Texaa was em braced in the cession of Louisiana by France to the United States in 1803, and was improperly surrendered by the treaty ol Florida in 1619; connected with the fact that a large portion ol the territory liea in the valley ol the Mississippi, And is indispensable to the defence of a distant and important frontier. The hazard of a conflict of policy upou impoitant points between the United States and one of the leading European powers, since the rt cognition of Texas, has rendered the acquisition still more essential to their salety and welfare, and accordingly baa increased in proportion the necessity ol acquiring it. Acting under the conviction ol this necessity, and the impression that the measure would be permanently defeated by a longer postponement, the Preaident of the United States invited f'exasto reue.w the proposition for annexation. It was accepted by her, and, as has been stated, ia still pending. And h>re the question again rer.uis, Snail the United States quietly stand by, on the eve of lis consummation, and pei mit the measure to be deleated by an invasion by Memco I And shall they jutfer Texas, lor having ac cepted an mvi'ation to j >in then1, and consummate a meusure alike essential to her aud their peimanent peace, w.llare, and safety, to be desolated, her inbabitauta to be butchered or driven out; or. in ore ur to avi rt so great a calamity, to belorced, against her will, into oiner al liances, which would terminate in producing lastiug hostilities ket veen her and them, tothe permanent danger ot both 7 , . The President has fully and deliberately examined the subject, and has come to the conclfision tbat honor and humanity, as well as the salety ar>d welfare of the United States, torbid it; and he would accordingly be compelled to regard the invasion of Texaa by Mexico, while the question of annexation is pending, as highly offensive to tne United States. He entertains no doubt that they had a right to invite her to renew the proposition lor annexa tion ; and that she, as an independent state, had a right to accept the invitation, without consulting Mexico or ask ing her leave- He regards Texas, in e.veiy respect, as in dependent as Mexico, and as competent to transler the whole or part of her territory, aa she is to transfer the whole or part of hers. Net to insist on the unquestiona ble right ol Texas to be regarded and treated in allri sju'cuasau independent power, on the ground that who h is successfully resisted Mexico and preserved her inde pendence for nine years, and has been recognized by other powers as independent, it is only necessary to re cur to the constitution of 1621, to show that she is per fectly entitled to be so regarded and treated. Under that constitution, she, with Coabuiia, formed a separate State, constituting one member of the federation ot the Mexican States, with a right secured to Texas, by the constitution, to form a separate State as soon as her population would warrant it. The several Btatea of the federa tion were equal in rights, and equally independent of each other; and remained so until 1833, when the constitution was subveited by the army, and all the States which dared to resist were subjugated and consolidated into one, by force, except Texas. 8be stood up bravely in deience of her rights and inde pendence, and successfully asserted them on the bat tle-ground of San Jacinto in 1838, and has ever since maintained them. The constitution, then, of 1824, made her independent, and her valor and her sword have since maintained her so. She has been acknowledged to be so by thraaot the loading powers ol Christendom, and is re garded by all as such, except by Mexico heiself She neither now stands nor ever bas stood in relation to Mexi co, as arebellious province or department struggling to obtain independence after.throwing off her yoke much li-ss as a band of lawless intruders and usurpers, without government or political existence, as Mexico would have the world to believe. On the contrary, the true relation between them is that of having been independent mem bers of what was once a federal government, but now subverted by force; the weaker of which has succcss lully resisted, against fearful odds, the attempts of the stronger to conquer and subject her to its power. It is in this light that the United Hia'es regard her; and in that they had the right to invite her to rene.w the proposition for annexation, -nd to treat with her lor admission into the Union, without giving any just olience to Mexico, or violating auy obligation, by treaty or otherwise, between us and her. Nor will our honor, any more than our welfare and salety, permit onnexa ion to be defeated by an invasion ol Texas, while the question is pending. If Mexico has thought proper to take oiiVnce, it is the United Slates, who invited a renewal of the proposition, aud not Texas, who accepted the invitation, which should be held respon sible ;v,and we, as the responsible party, cannot, without implicating our honor, permit another to sutler in our place. Entertaining these views, our honor and interests being both involved, Mexico will make a great mistake if she supposes that tho President can regard with indif. ference the renewal of the war which she bas pioclaimed against Texas But another, and still moie elevated consideration, would forbid him to regard the invasion with indiffer ence. Strong as the objections to it, of itself, arc, in con nexion with existing circumstances, those to the man uer in which it is proclaimed it will bo conducted aro sill more so. U honor and interestjorbiij crBP'WoAtf1 ekaiiikt tho pioposed mode ot conducting it. All tho world have aa interest that lh>a rules and usages of war, as established between civili*ed nations in modern times should bo respected, and are in duly bound to re. kist their vioUtiou.iu order to preserve them. in this case, that duty is pre-eminently ours. We are neighbors; the nouro&t to the scone, oi tho propoaedatiocitie#} tlie molt competent to judge, from our proximity, and, for the same reason, enabled the more readily to interpose. For the same reason, also, our sympathies would be more deeply roused by the scenes #1 misery which would pre sent themselves on all sides; not to mention the dangers to which we must be exposed, in consequence of an in vasion so conducted, near a distant and weak Irontier, with numerous aud powerful bands of Indians in Its vi II anything can add to these strong objections to the manner iu which it is*proc.laimed the war will be waged, it is the fiction, regardless ol the semblance af reality, to which the government ot Mcxiao has resorted as a pre text for the decrae of the 17th of June 1843, and the or ders of General Woll oi the 20th of Juno last Finding nothing in ihs conduct or people ot Texaa tojustily their baibarotis character, and paipsble violation of the laws ol nations and humanity, it has assumed, in wording theui, that there is no such government or communiiy as Texa<; th?t the individuals to be lound there are lawless intru ders and usurpeis, without political existence, who may be ngbtlully treated as a gang ot pirates and outcaats from Society, and, as such, are uot entitled to ?he protec tion ot the laws ol nations or humanity. In this assump tion the government ol Mexico ob>tinately presists, in ?pite ol the well-known fact, universally admitted by all except itsi It, that the colonists who settled Tesas, instead ol being intrudeis and usurpers, were mv.ted to settle theie, first under a grant by the Spanish authority to Moses Austin, which was alterwards confirmed by the Maxicau authoritj; aud alterwards bj similar grants Irom the State of Coahuil* and Texas, which it was au thorized to make by the constitution of 1824. They came there, than, as invited guests;?uot invited lor their own interests, but for those ot Spiin and Mexico, in order to protect a weak and helpless province Irom wandering tribes of Indians, to improve, cultivate, and render pro ductive, tv ild and aimuit uninhabited wast en j and to make that valuable which was before worthless. All this they ?fleeted at great cost and much donger and difficulty, which nothing but American energy, industiy, and perseverance could have overcome?not only uuaided by Mexico, but in despite of the inpedimauts caused by her interference, lnatead, than, of a lawless band ot adventurers, as they are assumed to be by the the government of Mexico, these invited colonists becamc, in a lew years, constituent portions ol one of the members ol the Mexican federation ; aud, since their separation, have established wise and free institutions, under the influence ol which they have enjoyed peace and security; while their energy and industry, protected by equal laws, have widely extended tha limits of cultivatian and im provement. It is such a people, living under such insti tutions, successfully resisting all attacks from the period of their reparation nine yeais ago, aud who have been recognisid and admitted into the lamily of nations, that Mexico ha? undertaken to regard as a lawltss bani.itti, aud against whom, as such, she has proclaimed awaref extermination ; forgetful of their esatted and generous humanity in relusing to exercise the just right ol retalia tion when, in a former invasion, victory placed in their hands the most ample means of doing so. The govern ment of Mexico may delude itself by its IIiUons, but it cannot delude the rest ol the world. It will be hold res ponsible, not by what it may choose to regard as facts, but what are in reality such, and acknowledged so t? be by all, save itaell. Such are the views entertained by the I resident of the United States in regatd to the pioposed invasion while the question of anneaation is pending, and ol the barbar ous and bloody manner in which it ia proclaimed it will be conducted : and, in conformity to his instructions, the uudersigned solemnly protests agaiust both, as highly injurious and offensive to the United States. The undersigned, while n akicg this protest and declar ation, has been instructed at thesama time to repeat to his excellency tho Minister of Foreign Relations and On vcrnmeut of Mexico, what was heretofore communicated to hiui by the charge d'affaires of tho United State*, in announcing the conclusion of the treaty,?that the measure was adopted in no spirit of hostility to Mexico ; and that II annexation should be consummated, the United States will be prepared to adjust all qutstious growing out of it, including that of bauudary, on the roost liberal The undersigned avails himself of thia occasion to renew to his excellency M. C. Kejon, minister of foreign relations, and government ol the republic ol Mexico, the insurance ef bis distinguished consideration. WILSON SHANNON. To his Exoellency M. C. IUjo*. Minister of Foreign Relations, &.C. Court fob thk Correction ok Error?.-?Tues day, Dec 4,18-14 ?I'reaent?Senaior Bocker, pre siding, and 28 oMier Seoarors. On the opening ot the Court, the following communication was read : ? Albany, I)?C. 8, 1844 Ho*. Dsnih. S. Dickinson, LiiuT.O0vr.aK0H Diak Sib? I hereby lesign the oWce af Senator of tha State ol New York, from the Fifth Senate District. In srparatiiig fiom the legislative body over which you creside, permit me to express to you, and to all its mem bers and officer*, my grateful sense of the frequent mani festations of your and their kindness towards me, and my earnest desire ior the welfare and happiness ol each ona of you. I have the honor to be, Very respectfully, Your obedient, HKNRY A. FOBTKR. Thereupon, on motion of Senator Porter, Resolved, 'i hat the Hon. Abraham Bockee be, and he is herebv appointed, Prn^idsnt jtrn trm of thia ( oiirt No :t J,?Supervisors of Onondaga vs. J. J. Brigg* Mr I I. nnggi wa< heard for the delt. in t rrnr, in person? vlr. I). B Noxon in reply, i but without concluding the Court took a rcocM to ?! o'clock, P. M. NEW YORK HERALD. I New Kuril, Saturday, December T, W4*. Weekly Pictorial Herald. MOCK AUCTION STORE. The Oyster Cellar Literati Discussing the Philosophy of the Age In a Orog Shop. EXTERIOR OF ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL. 1 he Weekly Herald, will be issued thiu muming at nine o'clock, uncommonly rich in interesting engravings. Price tij cents. The Steamer. No appearance of the Caledonia at Boston at S o'clock yesterday morning. She was then in her seventeenth day. Westerly gales, such as those that damaged the Sea, Uticaand Kalamazoo, have probably impeded her progress a little. Texas and Mexico?The Official Correspon dence. By incredible labor and expense, we have pro cured Irom Washington a copy of the official cor respondence during the last summer between the United States government and those of Texas and Mexico, relative to the question of annexation, and we present these important documents at full length this morning to our readers. They will be deeply interesting to all cluBses,especially to the merchants and politicians. This correspondence embraces all the diplomatic negotiations between this government and Texas and Mexico, during the lata summer up to the opening of the present session of Congress It pre sents the commencement of the denouement which a few weeks or months may bring to an issue, for there is daily expected at Washington a special messenger from Texas and Mexico, with further importantidocument* and correspondence on the subject,that may have a most important bearing on the question before Congress. Amongst the docu ments now published, however, the most impor tant paper is the letter addressed by Mr. Calhoun, the Secretary of State, to the Hon. W. R. King, American Minister at Paris, copies of which have also been addressed to the American Ministers at the other European courta. In this letter,Mr.Calhoun takes high and strong ground against the policy of Great Britain in relation to abolition and other questions. We have no doubt thatthiB whole cor respondence, but particularly this celebrated letter, will be equal to the bursting of a bomb-shell in the European diplomatic circles. Its effects we shall see in time. We have no time to-day for the further observa tions which this important correspondence bag gests. But we cannot close these hurried remarks without stating that according to our intelligence from Washington, we are informed that the Mexi can authorities here have been commanded by their government, under a certain contingency, to leave immediately on the issuing of the President's Message, to proceed to Havana, and then to issue letters o! marque and reprisal on American csm merce. Of course such a measure was dictated with reference to belligerunt movements on the part ol the President or Congress. At all events,thie Tex as question is now coming to close quarters. The recent election of Mr. Polk decided that the peo ple of the United States are in favor of annexa tion, as a single naked question, without reference either to Mexico or any other country. Can the Senators iu Congress,with this decision of the peo ple belore them, again dare to oppose the mea sure 1 Can the Senators of Virginia, who believe in the dectrine of instruction, oppose it ? Can Mr. Benton himself, with the vote of Missouri staring him in the face, oppose it 1 ?da^lty?.-8ome lime uBo Carolina?u Mr. I'.ck,?, -''-"'.1""-'"" ol a pilgrimage to Tennessee, in order to ascertain the lengih, breadth, thickness, and other special attributes of the President elect, on the subject ol the tarift and other questions; and that having as certained all these particulars to his satisfaction, geologically and geographically, he had returned to South Carolina, and made a full report of his investigations, which were regularly and officially published in the Richmond Enquirer. Since that time, we have no doubt, a number of private mis sions have been sent out by various political cliquei of the democracy throughout the country, on the same and similar errands. We see, also, by the Morning Newt of yesterday, that a special mission has been sent on irom the Van Buren clique of politicians iu this neighborhood, and that they have had the good lortune to select one of the most accomplished diplomatists in these parU?we mean Major Davezac. It appears by the last ac counts that he had got as far as Cincinnati on his way to Tennessee, and probably the next official I promulgation of his movements will record him as amongst the arrivals at Nashville. All these movements are very significant, and indicate the approach of a great dispensation on the 4th of March next. Mr. Polk himself, at the date of the last accounts,was on his way Irom Columbia, through Nashville, to the Hermitage, tor the pur pose of consulting with the elder branch of the Hickory lamily, and ascertaining what his views were of the present position of affairs through out the country, and particularly what would be the best materials for the construction of a new cabinet. We have also sent out our pri vate diplomatist towards those regions, to report progress in the Herald, and we have already re ceived some private despatches which indicate prrtty broadly, that" old Hickory" will give some good and sound advice to the young scion ol that venerable stock, before his flight from Tennessee towards Philadelphia and Washington?of such a character, too, as will disappoint many of the poli ticians. We have it on very good authority, that the young democracy of the present day are to be the advisers, and counsellors and associates of the " Young Hickory," that is to be our President? and if such should be the case, a very interesting light is thrown on the certainty of the tenure by by which all the officials, put in by Cap.^in Tyler, hold possession of the "spoils." It is said that Mr. Polk has already been written to on the subject of Dorr, of Rhode Island, but that he returned a very cool answer to the enthusi asts. In a few days, however, we shall receive from our messenger and diplomatist in Tennessee, very interesting additional information relatfte to the views, purposes and pursuits of the President, and the course which he will probably adopt in relation to a variety of men and measures. Tub Electoral Vote.?The 3d inst, was the day set apart for the meeting of the Presidential Elec tors in every State in the Union. Among those heard Irom the utmost harmony prevailed; the votes were given as the recent elections indicated. There were no splits as many fondly hoped there would be Sudden Death of Doctor S. C. Roe.?We re gret to state that the Doctor was taken suddenly ill yrsterduy morning when going to visit a patient. He feil on the side walk, was taken up by a watch man and assisted home, when he soon cea se<lo exist. His heart was supposed to be affected. Association i*or the Improvement or the Con dition ok the Poor.?We have a f ull report of the first meeting of this association, held last evening in the Tabernacle, in type, but are compelled, Irom i preps of other valuable matter, to leave it out un til to-morrow. Ohio Lioisi.att'rk ?This assembly met on the 2d inst David Chamber* was elected Speaker of the Senate, and John M. Gallagher of th Home Catholicity aud Peotestanissi?Da. P)in and Binoi Hughes?'The eontrovenial leetur w deli vered t>y the Rev'd. Dr. Piae at St. Peter's church in this city, and of which we have given ample and faithf ul reports, have excited a great deal of attention and remark, aa well amongst Catholics aa Proteatanta. Dr. Piae ia quite two ingenuous for the management of polemical discussion. The amiabl* simplicity, which ia ao characteristic of this erudite dtv.'ne, leads htm to announce, with" out the slightest attempt at reserve or conceal me nt, whatever he really believes, and regardless of the mannerin which the declaration may be received by his auditors. The Doctor haa been thus Jed to make a broader and more unvarniahed exhibition of several of the dogmas of the church, than uny of his fellow, laborers in Catholic controversy -of the present day. Indeed,ou some points of belief which prevailed in the dark ages, such as the miracles of the Saints,the Doctor has succeeded, by his ingenu ousness in exciting a laugh amongst the Protestants, and a little dissatisfaction amongst some professors of his owa creed. The appearance of Bishop Hughes in the field Qf. controversial theology 011 Thursday evening last,at St. Patrick's Cathedral, appeara to favor the'idea which haa been mooted abroad in certain quarters, that the Bishop does not regard Dr. Pise's annun ciation and defence of the Catholic dogma*, as al together discreet, however zealous and well-meant. The Bishop intends, himself, to give a serues of lec tures on the distinctive tenets of the Catholic faith, and thiB movement may be considered aa a sort of "countercheck quarrelsome," as Shakspeare ex presses it, to the lectures of the Rev. Dr. Pise.? Bishop Hughes is a controversialist of an altogether different stamp from the amiable pastor of St. Peters. He is subtle?ingenious?and vigilant; practised in the lists, and skilled in the use of the ological weapons. He conciliates rather than pro vokes his antagonists, and after establishing gene ral principles, to which their absent is readily giveo, rather seeks to drive them into acquiescence w'.th his conclusions, than to present in all their breadth and detail the distinctive dogmas of hia cb urch, for the purpose kof convicting Protestants of gross departure from the truth in rejecting them. He also appears to be free from that querulous, peevish and irritable manner which is almost universally characteristic of Catholic theological disputants; and as a mere orator, is fluent, pleasing, and effec tive in no ordinary degree. The Bishop's Lecture on Thursday evening was attended by a very crowded audience. It was merely introductory to the intended series of lec tures. The nature of belief, and the natural cra vings of the human mind for some sort of religious belief, constituted the chief subject of the remarks that were offered. The organization and estab lishment of " the church" as the depository of the revealed will of God, and as its authorized witness and expounder, was also dwelt on at some length|; and the great difference between Catholicity and Protestantism was represented as consisting in the fact that the latter received the scriptures, but re jected the witness and expounder, whilst the for mer recognized both. In the succeeding lectures the Bishop will, we are led to suppose, enter into a philosophical, mathematical and physiological ex planation and vindication of the dogmas of the Catholic church. We have no doubt that they will be well attended. Italian Opera.?There was a very elegant and full house last night, and the oi>era of Belisario was received with much more enthusiastic apprcbation than on the preceding nights of its performance.? The troupe is indeed now one of the best ever col lected in this country. After next week the opera will be given on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Satur days, in order to avoid some nights most frequent ly chosen for parties and balls. The fashionable patrons of this elegant amusement ought (to recol lect, in the selection of the nights for their toiriet and balls, not to interfere with the opera. The ex celleuce of the company, the fine style in which . ~ **?- , ----- r "?*va lotted for the enjoyment of this most refined oi all amusements, should certainly receive the warmest and most considerate patronage of the public.? Next week Cenerentola will be given, with Pico as the heroine, and Antognini, "Don Ramir," Tomasi, "Dandini,"' and Sanquirico,"Magnifico," ?an adm irable cast. The English opera at the Park appears to be losing somewhat in attractiveness. There was un evident falling off in the house last night. The "processions" and dances,and all that, are becom ing tiresome to the multitude. Ole Bull.?This distinguished musician is ex pected here in a day or two. Next week, we un derstand, he will commence a series of concerts, at the first of which he will play some ot his recent compositions, including the "Solitude of the Prai ries" and the" Falls ot Niagara." He has been giv ing concerts in Boston and the neighboring towns, like Worcester, with great success. He will ',)e re ceivedwith enthusiasm by his old friends when he appears again in this metropolis. Fashionable Movements.?Eorpoaay, who is teaching the whole beau monrfe the Polka, gives a grand ball at the Alhambra on the 27th inst The tickets are to be #5, and the proceeds go for the benefit of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum. It will be a magnificent affair. Captain Rynders, the Don Giovanni of modern Democracy and the Empire Club, intends proceed ing to Washington, to take part in the grand inau guration ball. Arrangements for the Winter.?The North ern mail during the winter will arrive in this city, via the HouBatonic Railroad and Bridgeport steam boats. It will leave Albany at seven o'clock, A.M , and reach here about eight o'clock in the evening. On Monday next the steamers for New Haven will leave Here at half-past six o'clock, A. M., and New Haven at eleven o'clock at night. These changes are made in consequence of the completion of the railroad from Hartford to Spring field. Passengers who leave Boston at three P.M. by this route, will reach New York eatly the next morning. This gives us four routes to Boston. Steamer Worcester ?This steamer, which left here on Wednesday afternoon for Norwich, was obliged (o return to the city. When of! Hunting ton Light, the piston rod of her air pump broke, and she was worked back by hand. She arrived in season to send on her passengers by the Long Island Railroad train yesterday morning. Meeting on Prison Dibciplin*.?The meeting held last night, at the Apollo roomr, was well at tended. Mr. J. W. Edmonds stated the objects of the assembly, which he supported at gieat length by elaborate and various argument!, moral, phrenolo gical, statistical and religious. A Committee ap pointed by the Chairman, Vice-Chancellor M'Coun, presented the draft of a Constitution for the So ciety, which we believe was adopted. Mr. Chan ning made a feeling address and was followed by two or three others, including a lady from among the audience. Our reporter's full account of the proceedings is unavoidably crowded out. Member of Congress from Niw Jersey ? Isaac G. Farlec intends to contest the scat of John Hunk in the next Congress. The latter has a ms jority of sixteen votes, and is opposed to demo cracy. Case of Polly Bodine.?It having been found impossible to impannel a jury for the trial of Polly Bodine at Richmond, the court adjourned on Thursday evening tint die. No Message at Albany.?This document had not reached Albany yesterday morning. Navigation.?Tlu? river continued open to 'Al bany on Thursday. Intklliosnce from Canada.?Our advices from Montreal are to the SOth ult. inclusive. The only news of con^equcnce m the opening of the Provincial Parliament, the Governor Generals speech?its mock kingly display?and the earth quake at Montreal. Annexed ?? the speech which the Gov. read iu a voice clear, distinct, and audi* ble in every part of the room: HonorabU GentUman ?/ the Legislative Council, and Gen Hewn of the House of *1ssemhly : 1 h?VM us?enibied y uu mi tue earliest period that the completion of the recent General (election would allow, and 1 have high tuti.Uclion iu meeting you iu order that we may devote ourselves to the care ol the great inteies's committed to our charge. The lemon ol the year being unfavorabla for the pros ecution ol those ayqeations in which many ol you are engaged, you will be enabled 1 trust with less incouve nience, tQ?UM>? totho disrhurge ol the impoitant func tion* which yt>u have to perioral. 1 huve fhc happiness to announce to you that the Birth ot a Prince has gladdened the hearts of the subjects ot our gracfjus Queen throughout. Her vast dominions in every xj'.iarter ol the glob*, and tier Majesty's continued safety anil health demand our gratitudu to the Almighty <*vjVof all good. 87 >'iauy subjects in which the welfare of the Province is d ecply involved will be entitled to your earnest confide* ration. None can be more important then the itnprovt ? ment ot the e tucatlon*of thu people, which is ono of the mwt urgent duties of the SUte; and I auxioHsly hope that in addition to such other amendments of existing Laws on th s momentous question as may be required ui either section ol the Pioviuce, your wisdom msy be able to devise some arrangement respecting the Univeisity of King's College,that may reciive the sanction ol the Crown and give general satisfaction in the Colony. The Municipal Institutions of the i rovince, the pro visions for which have, in Lower Canada pioved, to a great extent, nugatory, will, no doubt, engage your at tention ss well as the state of the Prisons uud the want of Lunatic Asylums: The amelioration of the means of communication throughout the Province, on whish its prosperity mainly depends, for production is unavailing, U means do not exist, of reaching a market, also deserves consideration. The Kustern Townships ol Lower Cana da are peculiarly destitute in this particular ; and the Town of Kingston, in tpper Canada which has unavoid ably suffered much by the removal of the Seat ot Govern meut, is devoid of a Road through the Inland Territory, towards the Ottawa, which is essential for the prosperity of tb'at neighborhood. Tite Militia Law of Lower Canada having expired, the ^ibsutution of another s^ems toibe requisite, and it may 'tie desirable at the same time to revise the existing Militia Law of Upper Cantida, and ta lrame a General Law for both sectious of the Province. It afford* me great pleasure to be able to inlorm you that the flourishing state of the Revenue taran a ti* tub ject for congratulation. There is rei.sou to believe that it msy be further improved by wise legislation ; and that judicious economy may contribute to the same result. Her Majesty bas most graciously received the Address from the Legislative Assembly of the last Parliament, en the subject uf the Civil List. Although tie only objects sought by the Imperial Legislature in making provision for a Civil List were to give stability and securltyto the great Civil Institutions ol the Province : to provide for the adequate retnuneio tion of able anu efficient Officers in the various Public Departments ; and to enable Her Majesty to make mode rate provision lor the declining years of those whose best days have been devoted to a faithful discharge of public duties, or who by eminent services, might have merited the favor of the Crown ; Her .Majesty is nevertheless ful ly persuaJed of the concurrence of Her faithful subjects in Canada in effecting these objects ; and would gladly owe the means of attamiug them to the spontaneous liber ality of her Canadian People. Whenever therefore due and adequate provision shall have been made for them by the Legislature of Canada, Her Majesty will be prepared to recommend to the Imperial Parliament the Repeal of so much of the Act of Union ss relates to this subject.? Until the Imperial Parliament shall bave assented to such a recommendation. Her Majesty equally with all Her Subjects, is bound by the provisions of an Enactment to which Her Sanction has been given. Gentlemen uf the House of Jlssembly: ? The financial accounts of the Province for 1843, wil be immediately laid beiore you, and tbose for 1644 as soon as fiey can be prepared alter the completion of the year.? The Estimates likewise will be submitted to you at an early period. Notwithstanding the unavoidable expenses attendant on the removal of the Seat of Government from Kingston to Montveal, and other claims tp be submitted for your consideration, a considerable surplus Reveuue will re* main., affording the mesne of making some provision to wa'.ds the liquidation of the public debt. i entertain no doubt of your willingness to provide for t\ie exigencies of the public service, and you may lely on my exertions to diminish expenditure by all practicable economy. I have availed myself of several opportunities for retrenchment that have presented themselves, and shall continue to pursue the seme course whenever re duction may appear to be consistent with efficiency. Honorable Gentlemen, and Gentlemen of Ike House of Jlsstmhly:? You will, lam sure, concur with me in desiriug that the weiiare ol United Canada may be promoted by our joint labors. To that great end 1 invite your earnest ef forts, and you may be assured of my hearty co-operation in every measure that may be calculated to secure peace and prosperity, justice and happiness to this (Province. The chargta entrusted to me by our sovereign, I shall continue to administer according to the acknowledged principles of our Provincial Constitution, and with a view to the want* and wishes of the community. On theoc olticesuf administration;-! WuiiS&T/ i,ha most important ?wum by the appoiutm...! v< gvnueffiAstfpposea to pOr* sess thu confi'ience of the people. Extraordinary obsta cles produced a delay in the accomplishment ol that put jk)3o, notwithstanding my incessant exertions to ettect it Con'idently believing, that the sevcial branches of the Legislature, in the full exercise of their constitutional po/Wers, will maintain the harmony essential to the well '??king oi the people, for whose benefit alone these powers are conferred. I will not detain you from the important duties which await you, further than to express my hum bit: hope, that the Almighty may bless our endeavors,and render them efficacious Tor the public good. Ofeninu or the Canadian Parliament, Nov. 38.?At 11 O'clock the Commissioners for administering tGe eaths to members appeared, according to previous notice, in the Chamber ol the Assembly, attended by the Clerk of the House, the Clerk ol the Crown in Chmceiy, and otht r officers. The oaths were then admir>iitcred to the 76 members present, who then took their seats but the Cleik having intimated an adjournment until one o'clock, (it be ing now twelve,) some of them retired. Exactly at one o'clock the Governor General, attended by a bri'.iiant suite drove fiom Government House to the L^ghjative buildings, where a guard of honor, from the Regiment, was in attendance to receive him, and having entered the Legislative Council Chamber, took his seat upon the throne. The most of the members of Council were present, aud the space allotted to the public was filled to overflowing, the seats |behind the members' chairs being occupied by the ladies. The gentleman usher of Uie black rod was then ordered to command the at tendance of the members of Assembly, who soon after ap peared rn mats* at the bar. The Clerk then read from a paper, the intimation, that His Excellency the Governor General would declare the reasons for his assembling the present Parliament, as soon as the House of Assembly should elect a Speaker, for which purpose they again re tired ; after a few minutes His Excellency rose, descended from the throne, and having bowed to the Council, with drew. The mace was then laid on the tab!?, and the Hon. Mr. Draper moved an adjournment until this dsy at one o'clock, which was agreed to The Governor General wore the uniform of his office, and appeared in good health. On the election of McNab for Speaker, the following was the vote, showing the division of parties : Ykas?Boulton, Brooks, Chalmers,Colville Cnmmings, Daly, DeBieury, Dickson, Duggan, Dun lop, Ermatinger, Foster, Gowan, Grieve, Hale, Hall, Jessup, Johnston, Lawrason, MacDonald (Cornwall) MacDonald (Kicgs ston,) MacDonnell (Dundaa.) McConnell, Meyers, Moffatt, Murney, Panineau, Petrie, Riddell, Scott, Seymour, Sher wood (Brockville ) Sherwood (Toronto,) Sn.ith (Fronte nac,) Smith (Missisnuoi,) Stewart (Bytown,) Stewart (Prewott,) Webster, Williams ?39 Nats? Armstrong, Aylwin. Baldwin, Berthelot, Ber trand, Boutillier, Cauchon, Chabot, Chauveau, Christie, Desaulniers, DeWitt, Drummond, Franchere, Guillet, Jo bin, Lacoste, Lafontaine, Lantier, Laurin, LeMoine, Les lie, MacDenald (Glengarry,) MacDonald (Stormont,) Me thot, Nelson, Powell, Price, Prince. Roblin, Rousseau, Small, 8mi;h (Wentworth,) Tacbe, Taschereau, Thomp son? 86. Legislative Council.?Friday, Nov. 29, 1844. -The Council met according to adjournment. Soon alter it as sembled, his Excellency the Governor General, having been received on dismounting from his carrisge by a guard of honor and a salute of twenty guns, which the cheers of thu multitude artund made almost inaudible, airived in the Council Chamber, dressed in uniform, and surro un ded by a splendid suite, and having ascended the throne, the Gentleman Usher of the Black Red was directed to command the attendance of the House oi Assembly. The House appeared with Sir Allan McNab, the Speaker, at their head. Sir Allan iddress his Excellency to the il fect, that the House ol Assembly had made choice ol hint as its Speaker, an! he asked, by respectful petition, that the usual privileges be accorded to tne members, paiticu larly fre? dom of speech in donate, free sccess to his Ex cellency 's person, at all reasonable times, and that bis Ex cellency would put the most favorable interpretation upon all their seta House or Assr.MeLV?November i9 1944.?The House met to-dsy nt hall past two o'clock At three o'clock, the Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod entered and delivered the Governor General's command ftrthe attendance of the nouse in the Chamber of the Legislative Council. Soon alter the members returned, and the Spesker hav , ing resumed the Chair, reported to the House the Speech ol His Excellency, and read It in English ; upon which there were loud cries from the op|ioaition of " in French,' " iu French." The Speech was then tead by the Clerk in that language. During the whole of ihn time occupied in reading the speech, Mr Aylwin continued seated, with his hands crossed upon his breast, the rest of the members standing. Mr. Johnston wss to csll to order the hon. ??ember he saw opposite, (pointing to Mr Aylwin )? Loud cries of " order !" upon which .Mr. Johnston forbore bis in'erruption until the speech was read. [From the Montresl Herald, Nov. 30 ] Yesterday morning, between the hours of twelve snd one. the shock of an earthquake was felt over the whole ot the city of Montreal It was severe enough to causn the houses to shake, and pieces oi furniture to rattle and was attended with a loud rolling noise, as of the rapid pas sage of h*avy artillery in the streets Many persons were awoke with the noise snd the rocking of their bedsteads from side to side. We bsve hesrd of no accident* from it although the ares of its psssage seems to have been large. (From the Montreal Courier of Nov. 59 ] On Saturday night, a young, man going to his resi dance in that psrt ol the city called Griffintown, wai knocked down by several men ; he drew a pistol and fired, killing one of the assailants, named Fmnall. The others fled, and the young man sought rsfuge in the house of agentleman nearny, which was soon assailed by a mob He escaped from the bouse and fled lo another, which was in turn attacked, and he whs obliged to leave It. The was family qnieted by the military A placard of an inflammatory nahue, calling n meeting ol Irishmen and Canadians in reference lo this mutter, wss posted the noxt tlsyi but the place designated for the

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