Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 25, 1836, Page 2

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 25, 1836 Page 2
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vidingl'ist 'o one shall take, by inheritance, 1 any r'tf't f properly in slaves? Or liy n law, that nil children, burn ol slaves niter a certain pcriud, shall bu free? Such enact mcnls would touch no rights, actual in id vested, but right, if ibey can bo called such, resting in expectancy merely, rights purely potential in their nature nnd char" octer. It may bo added that, though a re peal of the existing la ws nn the subject of slavery in this District might not nlfect any nclual subsisting right, it is obvious thai no property could be Iherearinr acquired jn nny person, not living, or hold in service in the District, at Uio lime ol'such repeal. Bull go further, sir. If Congress, un der the clause giving it "exclusive legisla tion in all cases whalsoevnr" over tltc Dis tricl, ha- authority to impose taxi's, and provide how they shall be raised, fur local and municipal ptirposns, I do not sco why it has not the power, by ineaiw of taxation, to effect the abolition of slavery here. I say nothing of the right or justice of excit ing the power fur such a purpose. 1 speak only of the power, and of its capacity In bo used, to accomplish such an end. lint, however this may be, I hold that Congress, it the public interest and wellare require it may directly, and at onco, emancipate the slaves, on making a just compensation to the owners- The clause in the Uonstitu. tion, which regulates the taking of private property Tor public use, id not, in my optn ! ....... .. .... '.I.: - ion, resinctcu to suco properly merely, nsj may be converted and applied to the actual ! use and emolument of the public. 1 think the word use, in the Constitution, is to be un derstood in a liberal sense, as equivalent to purpose or benefit; and that whatever is taken for public ptirposcs.or for the public benefit, is taken for public use, within the meaning of the Constitution. These, sir, are my doctrines upon this very interesting and important subject. I have Uted them briefly but frankly j giving a glimpse, rather than a view, of the reasons tty which they may be sustained. I have Toll it incumbent upon mo to Fay something. and I could not, in the proper dischargo of tny duly here, well say loss. may bo saved from the evils of war, nf di visions, and of pestilence and, linally, let us prnv that llio benign tnliticiico ot the pure nnd peaceful religion of the (lospel may spread from heart to heart, and Irom laud tu land, until infidelity, idolatry, nnd superstition shall bu exterminated from the whole earth. Given nndur my hand nt Shoreham, this Mill day of March, in the L. S. year of our Linn, one thousand eight hundred and thirtysix. and of the Independence nf the? Uni ted States, the sixtieth. SILAS II. .1 UNISON, lly Ills Honour. Gi:o. 15. Manser, Secret try. FRIDAY MORNING, MARCH 23. REPORT OK Till'. COMMIT THE, Appointed by the Literary Convention, hohlen in Jlincsburgh, VI. January 13(7. ami Uth, on Primary School!, At a Literary Convention, huldcn in Ilincslmrgli, on (he 13ih anil 14lli of.l.imiary, 1S3G, to deliber ate on llio best means of promoting popul.tr Educa tion In Vermont, llin tin lersigned were nppoinicd a Committee lo address llio pttblie on lite evil") ex isting in onr Common Schools anil lo express their views icfcctini the remedies which ought lo ho npplicil fir the coircction of these evils. In performing lliis duly, ho thnll not unlertnkc to enter the witlo field offtcls and principles laid open and explored by lite Convention ; our limit?, with other circumstance?, forbid this, Nnr e-li.ilj we attempt lo descril n all the influences good and u.nl, which are tloing out upon our ointc, irom our system of Common Schools. Dm thcrn nre three points of view in which wo wish to engage every l'nrent,evcry Legislator und every Cilifn, lo look nt (he subject. First. Tin importance of our Common School System Its relation to the prevailing I have not boon ablu to persuade mvsclf mi t tntplli.rpyirp nml rultiiintril mind in U.. 1. I.I ...I .1 ". o mai u wuiiiu suuscrvo uii) cause oi iruin and juitice, contribute at nil to the peace of the country, or serve, in any decree, to strengthen the union of those Slates, to withhold the expression of our real opinions upon this question. The People should not be blinded upon this subject, any more than upon any other. Since it is ngitated, it is due to the country, it is due both to me Worth and to the South, to state exult cily the views we entertain upon this must important matter. To know that Congress has the power to abolish slavery in this District, need not, and will not, produce alarm ur apprehension in any quarter of tho Union. The People every where must feel assured, nnd ought to rest satisfied, that this power, like all other powers un der the Constitution, will bo exercised with becoming wisdom nnd discretion: with ojuet regard to the interests not only of this uistnci, uui oi ine wnnie country. J liny ought to know, and must know, that when policy, expediency, and justice concur in the measure; when it can bo adopted with 6afety to the Union, and security to all then, and then only, will tho power be exercised; and that, when exercised, it will be in such a manner as shall neither disturb th? public tranquillity, nor violate the sane tity of private rights. Sir, I think the time must cotne. and will come, when slavery will cease lo exist in this District. Tho opinion of all Christen oom.ine opinion ot the ctvilizctl world, is becoming uniform and settled on tho gencr ol subject of slvory. lis influence must be felt. It cannot always be resisted: nnd the time will come when Southern men will ceaeo their opposition to a measure, lo whieh they now feel, and I have iw doubt sincerely feel, that thoy cmnot yield their assent, without danger, great und imrni nenl danger, to the so, ml relations and eaiauiisneu liininuiions ul t nc estates in which thev live. A PROCLAMATION. ALL Nature speaks the existence tf God, before wham it is fitting and prop, or, on all suitable occasions to humble ourselves for our sin and transgression, to acknowledge our dependenco'upon his goodness for protection and favor, and fnrneslly to suplicato a continuance of His aid and support. This is the Ian guage of inspiration : it is the conviction of every rational and intelligent mind. In obedience, therefore, to the long eslnb lisbed and commendable usage of our fore fathers, of setting apart, by oppointment of tho civil government, one day in each year, at the commencement of tho labors of tin; season, that tho whole couimunilv may join in the performance of this service, so grnlclu! to every christian and iiiou heart. I do horeby appoint WEDNESDAY the THIRTEENTH DAY OF APRIL next, to be observed as a day of FASTING nml PKAVP.K Ihrnnnl.n.., 1 1.;., J,... . , ... mia uiuiui his rccommeiiucti mat all vain nmusc mcnts anil unnecestary labor bo suspended on gnid day, and that ministers and people of every religious denomination assemble at their respective places of public worship and with unfeigned repentance in iheir Hearts mr sin, uim trongeressiou ot lion s Hoiy Law, and in humble confidence in the emcacy ol the atoning sacrifice and inex haustible grace of tho Saviouii. implore forgiveness And while we repent and grieve for our own fius, let us pray Ai.migiitv Gin for His blessing upon our civil institutions; that our beloved country may be preserved Irom every threatened danger ; that patri otlem and virtue may not he sacrificed tu n trigue nnd corruption ; that all in authority in our National and State Governments, may bo under the special guidance of Di vine Providence that they may be led to the adoption ol such measures as will ro storo confidence and harmony among the citizens of the different sections ol our country, sccuro the happiness of the people nnd ensure the transmission, unimpaired, to future generations, ol tho civil and re ligious freedom bequeathed us by our fa triors. ' Let us pray for the people of this Statu, that they may bu blessed and prospered in all their lawlul and proper undertakings that thu great interests of Educatiun may be promoted and its influence on society be more deeply fell and appiectaied that we the State, To nineleen-twcntiethsoriho people of Vermont, our Disliict Schools nro the producers of nearly ill the education they h.iyc. Our population, nc corilins to the last census, is 2SO.00O. Of these 2SO.O0O, one hundred and llfiyseien thousand (con ider.thly more thin one half) arc under twenty years of age. Not pioicth.ui one in lwcnly,of ihee 157,000 children and joutli, can get, or will have- itceces to our acaJeunes ; nml not more man one in fifty, as things now are, will receive a college edu cilion. After diducting one twentieth and one fiftieth from lli.it poition of our populatio i, now under twenty jenrs old, there will remain MG.OOO young- citizens, destined soon to be the fathers and mothers of our State, tohosc intellectual character must be chiefly formed in our prima ry tchooh. Iflhis generation shall grow up tin educated, or paitlally and wrongly educated, it is easy lo see ili.it their children, in turn, will not he trained lo iliat degree of knowledge which their on ti well beim nnd ihe cood of ihe State demand. It is impossible to persuade men of the value nf Unovvl edge uulo-s they hae acquired it themselves. Ed ucatcd men nriio hijhlv enough ihe cultivation which ihey have attained, 1 hut die ignorant can be convinced by no nrcumenls and no persuasion, thai lellectti.il treasures nre of any real value.' It i not bo with other acquisitions. A poor man will labor us diligently to acquire wealth ns the rit h to icl.tin or incieasc it ; but nn ignoinnt man will no1 labor so hard lo u.iiii knowlcd 'c as a learned man will lo nild to the stoics nhcady urquired. Thou inds of uneducated parents linger wholly in the d.uk on ibis subject ; nnd do not value nn education for iheir childicn as they ought to value it. And the reason is lh.it oilier objects of pursuit such as wealth and power, tc. can bu teen, distinctly conlemplalcd and iinnicciated. before thev me acquued, bul knowledge cannot be appreciated until it is acquir cd As these schools uio tu furni-h tho great mass of Ihe community with all ihe education they will ever have.cxcepi so inuih us ihey may obtain afierwaids by I heir own unaided clToi is, ihey ought to be made much mure efficient than lliy now urc for gitin; knowledge, discipline and diicction lo one bundled and f.rtv ihousnnd voun? minds in our Stato. If these schools arc made what they ougltt to be, nnd what Ihey may be, with the money now expended on litem, these iniuds will be cultivate. I and fuiui.-hed it hasl, lo such an extent us will inilio their pns sessors good citizens, u-cdil lo tho republic, to the Church nnd to I lie world. Hut ns things now nic, many ol these children me likely lo grow up without cultivation their life will be no solid benefit lo llio Slate, and iheir death .scarcely any m.re loss lli.i.i would be thu felling of eo m my liecs in ihe forests of tho Gi ecu Mountains. It is pi nn Ilicn, that for instructing lliegreat body of ihe people, we must place our chief icliance upon Common Schools. As these are llio grand instrument for the impiovcmcnt of the people, Iriw important is it ihnt lhi. iustiuincnt should be put in order nnd kept in order. In oilier words, these schools nic ihe foundation of our whole system of public instruction, und indeed of nil our fiec inslilu lions. If we let this basis ciuuitjle away, ihe whole f.ibi iu inusl fall. Evils lo be Examined and Removed. fcaltiie in onr system, we bellow; ihesjstcni It so tf is incomplete in two important lespccls. In the first place, it has no rrjponsiblo head "til Ihe Disliict, ihe Town or in Ihu Stato, to overlook ihe school, lo know its condition and icport its results. And secondly, It create, no efficient, independent trlbu n.tl In ensure competency in lite Teachers J it con tains no stand ird of qnalificalious by which candi dates fir le idling sh ill be tried. Through these deficiencies miny other serious evils have cicpt Into our schools. These mint be examined by us or wc shall do nothing In correct ihcm. I'rom our hiving no cfiicieut tribunal Insecure competency in teachers, it insults iti.U much time und money nro tin own nway upon unnualilied tcar.lr crs, who, instead of benefiting the pupil, do him nu nciii.il injury. I his may bo seen by looking nl tho facts in the c ise. Onr Summer free Schools, for example, nro usually lauglit nbout four months by fern lies. The pupils which attend, are fiom four to twelve jc.irsold. I!ul who uie tho poisons to whom wo cntiust our childicn iu this most interesting pe. riod of their life 1 They mc mostly ihoso who have no other c lucalioii than whal tlicy have aaqnir ed in the District school. They are young often wholly inexperienced ns teachers, constantly changing iheir employment ; und generally, ihey have ncier had nny direct pi epilation for ihe busi ness of teaching. When wo purchase the mttci i als for n bonnet or dress fir a child, would wo suf fer these materials lo bo made up by hands which had never been instructed and disciplined to lhi kind of vork 1 If we liavo even n shoo lo bo mended, do wc sen I it to a person who lias no knowledge, cxp' rieuco or skill in the profession I Wc certainly do not, vet wo commit our children, and trim thejdevel ipcnient of their dolie Ho bodies their susceptible hearts and iheir tender minds lo we know not whom or lo persons, who know nolhlng, either from experience or previous training, of tho compile itcd nnd difficult duties assigned them. There must bo somclhiig wrong in this. Tho H.imo rem irks will npply with equal force lo multitudes ofyonng men who undertake lo instruct our Winter Schools the highest class of schools to which ihe whole population of Ihe Slate hnvo free access. We know th it some of th ise who come out from our Colleges and Academies lo the business of leaching in the winter are, wilh few others, excep tions to these rem uk. Hut after nil the excep tions thai can bo mule, what arc the qu ilificalions of multitudes who en; ige in the delicucand re sponsible dutv of insliucling and governing a school of 50 or 100 children 1 Who knows any thing about what they are ? '1 here is no standard of quab.'.ca lions which ihey must have; nnd if there were ;i standard, there is no body to decide whether they romo up to it ; or if it bo known thai ihey possess llio requisite knowledge, there nro uoao to judge whether they are ablu lo cutnmunic.il'i it lo others. A teacher may possess alt the knowledge nnd sei" ence of Sir Isaac Newton in his head, vet if be his no aptness lo teach, it will avail his pupils noth ing. The consequence resulting fiomihcso deficien cies, is, that nil young men who set up ns c.indi dates for ihe business, do generally hctp school. Ami as things now :ue it is impossible to keep out unsuitable.!!! I unrpialifio.I candidates. Any vuuu, man who lays d wn his nxo and takes up the roil and aspires to rule in a District School, li is iu com mon with other young men, a degree of dignity which it is not very eafj for any body to q-icstion or disturb. lleic we beg leave to say lb u we disclaim every thing like a icfleetiou upon any class nf teachers in un uini'uce oi an means oi prrp iring tiicin lor teaching, we do not blame litem for not being quali lied, if they nro not, nny moie than ue could blame superior lo thoo of hii successor. 'I Ins ov'tl in perpetuated liy various causes, sum as mo smallneos nt tho teacher s compensation, and the lilllo importance which the people attach to the otTicc. Uencomostot those who teacli feel no permanent interest iii thu Rc'iaols.Thoy ongago in teaching moldy by tho way.to raisa tho means nl doing soinolliing else. &o soon as constant employ inont.witli increased wages'. is ollurcd Ihoni, they usually abandon scnoor Itcopmg, Hence hut low teachers ot tried ex perience can bo found. Tho profession is generally filled by young persons from fifteen lo twenty fivo voars ot ago, who tauo up thu business" without any direct preparation for it; and as tlicy do not expect to gain their repu tation or living by teaching, thcro is lilllo tnolivo to cxorlion or improvement. The cood of tho public domaridstlial the business of leaching should lio erected into a dislinct pro fession sustained by such respect and com pensation as its impoitanro demands. Wo barely suggest this topic for tho consideration ofthinking peoplo, without having spaco or time to follow it out into all its bearings. There is also a great want of punctuality and regularity of attendance, on the part of the pupils. Tho committee have some stub born facts proving the existence of this cvil,and facts which ought to bo known. Wo aro ac quainted with soma towns whore two thirds, and sonic, whoro not moro than ono half of the scholars for whom common schools aro instituted and sustained, do attend. This arises from various sources. One principal cause, Is the neglect or parsimony of parents. Annllicr causo is tho ignorance of parents, es pectally of tho lower class of foreigners, of llio value of education for their children. Anoth er cause, is tho invotcratu projudico ofltomati Catholics against Protestant schools t pre: judico which the wily Priests inculcalo and strengthen, by every moan' in their power. Meneo from tho evil of which wo now speak, results the fact, that tho number of grown up men and women in our Stato who cannot roid and write, is increasing with a fearful rapidity every ycar.and is threatening to roll hick up on us (ho shades of thick old night. There is another subject to which public at tention should bo drawn, as it is intimately connocled with tho prosperity of our schools, though our limits will permit us only to refer to it. Wo moan tho structure, sizo and loca. tion of school houses. Tho siza of school house; is much too small. " Wo oficn find," says one who has attentively examined this subject, " fifty or sixty pupils crowded into a room ol II! lout squaro, ot which number, 30 write, CO study arithmetic and a fow urain mar and geography ; and within tliej-o dinion sioiiu all thu evolutions of a school, or tho ar rangement and disbanding of classes are to bo performed." Wo happen (somo of us) to know from experience, that it is impossible to proceed with the appropriate exercises of a school, encamped in this manner. " Greater attention ourrht, also, to bo paid lo tho location of school houses. They aro gcnoially located on ths principle, viz : thoy must bo placed as near as possible in the contro ol llio district. Ilenco thoy aro often placed near stagnant marshes and ponds (or what is scarcely less injurious) near sandbanks, or in closo contact wilh jails or taverns or blacksmith shops.whoro tho pjpus aro continually cxposeu to iiuerrup. tion from uoiso or to bad moral influences. Somo mav think the subiect involved m these remirks a small matter but wo mum it oi sutTicienl importance tu command the attcn lion of tho friends of Common Schools. Wc liavo in our stale about 3000 district schools. 1 he annual avcrago expense oi muse schools is about .100 each ; making their an nu.i cost lo l ie stato 83U0,UUU. It wo lako into account other expenses, such as board fuel, stationary ,and the building and repairing of school houses, it will bo found that our 3000 district schools cost us not loss than half a million ovorv year. Now iflhis amount of money is already expended in llio best possiuio manner, and is producim: to thu stato the hesl effects it can bo nudo lo produce, theiitliorois our physicians and clergjinrn for being unskilful, if no call for any revision of our system, or for The evils which demand correction lie not so much iu our Piimarv School system, as in thu apa lliy ol llio people nml tho unfitness of Teachers. Wc believe our sjstcm to be good ns far us it goes. It involves tho right principles and appeals to the right kind of feelings in the people. Itdiawsfiom them nn annual lax for its support, and thus makes litem value common Schools, on the well known principle, lh.it men do value every thing in propor tion lo its cost. However careless men may bo iu expending lliat which costs them nothing, tho mo ment ihey come lo put iheir own money with it, a new value is given lo ihn donation, and they nro much more likely lo fee lo il that the funds thus raised are fiilhfully npplicil. Iiul after ull that mav bo said of this excellent If an apology is duo lo tho Convention for the Into appearance of this Itoporl, or for the imperfect inaunor in whieh tho subject of it is now presented, tho apology is found iu tho fact, that thu member of thu cniuinilteu, appointed to prepare it, has been constantly occupied, during thu winter, with parochial lauois ul prcjsing and peculiar interest. theic were no schools and hooks and lectin cs to pic: paie ihcm for their piol'e.-jion Another evil of no small migniiule, isthehiil selection, thu yanely anil constant change of Fchool books. 'I Ins comes in diieclly through ihe incompetency ot leauicis and Hie nlwnce ol a iC' sponsible supervision, A (inciter ung.igus i.i i school lor Ihe three winter mouths, lie hods a set of hooks iu use, pel haps tlicy ate the hesl I hat e in he had. bul he is not acquainted with them, uml therefore ho prcfeis others. Ilcinfonns ihe schol ars lb it ihey must have a new set of buuks. The children, ulwavs pte.i-ed with novelty, e.iiry the message lo their patents ; but they, seeing no good icuson for ihe chinge, aic di-plciscd. At Icngih, however, they arc induced by the authority ul the te.iLiicr anil uio constant application nl then- cliil ihcn.to pi (inn o iliem. The school goes on and at leiigin is closed. I lie next winter, a now teacher is cmploved nnd. in bis oninion. oilier b inks would he murn Detler llian iho-'e used the preceding win ter. He recommends a new- st l and calls upon the p ireuls to provide them. They me. displeased, us well Ihey may be. a ml enter their loud complaint against this constant change. Thus much b 1 1 feel ing is excited anil much money is uselessly spent lo grainy mo caprice an. I ignorance ol incompetent teachers. We speak of ibis evil, because it ihrnws especially upon poor families a biinlen of often u-e lesscxpen-c, vvlncli tliey cannot sustain, anil op. ales in many cases, in ihe cnliie exclusion of their children from the school. Thai lu.inv of the books now used in our schools uio illy adapted lo leach ciiii.iicn, wc nave no iluutit. In I vvlienunucc sional change will cii.-uiu actu d improvement, il ought not lo bo objected to ; but as the business is now icio ofiin nnnaaed, il is n meat evil : vei. an evil which will giaduilly disappear of itself, if a lemedy shall be found out for oilier defects. Another evil which demands tlio attention ufsome lesponsiblo Hoard or Supervision, is ihe tuperjl cialncss with which education is roudir.led in m i m.ny schools, and tho intindiictiou of imniniicr studies. It was llio oiiziu il tlesun and it. certainly is stilt llio appiuprintc business id' District S( hoots, IhoiuU'ditv lo discipline and dull the yoiin in sitel ling, reading, ai iiliinclie und llio like. P.ut iu these davs, the children whom uo fenj lo ihcso schools, have left ihoso "beggarly elements" which were, in I licit- view, .i shadow of eooil ihius lu come," nnd huvclakcu hold of the good lliins ihcin-elves, viz Ihe learned sciences. Learning to re id and spell correctly is becoming unfashionable, nnd thousands upon thousands ofcliildieu, before thev cm read, or even spell their native tongue in a tolerable manner, are laving aside Ihesu fundamental parts uf cdaea lion, for siuilvin; Philosophy, Astronomy. Ilhcloric und liotony 1 Tho pupil is permitted lo run over eveiy llnng. while noiuin is leuned thoroughly : superficial h ibits are founed, which grow up with him ami become a pan of the future man, and become also, a positive injury both lo his mind nnd Heart. Wti might mention several other ovils whicl oxisl in connexion wilh tho common schools of Vermont tho perpetual change of teachers is one and a great one. Sometimes a teacher is employed for two successive seasons rarely for moro than that, und generally a chaniro is mado ovory year. Every new teacher brings wilh bun now methods ot instruction and dis cipliuc, or follows different rules of pronuu c'utiou, ur demands different school huoku, as wo liavo seen ; and il'lbey aio not furnished. anv other effort. Hut if the examination ami removal of tho evils wo have named, would nialio tho statu derive twice as much benefit from tho samo expenditure, then surelv.sonie thin" oiifrht lu bu done, and our legislators. who aro tho guardians of llio public welfare oun-lil to do something to madia our system more ollieiciil fur educating tho young citizen of tho slate. '3. Jlimcdiet for existing Evih. There is throughout the State more una nimity among thinking men, nn llio inipnr tance nf improving tho state of priniuy ed ucation, than ns lo the means uy which it is lo be accomplished. A preliminary slop undoubtedly is, thoroughly to explore thu ground ant! lay the results of this explora tion before the people and their legislators; and thus bring thu public mind tu reflect the public oar In listen nnd ihe public eye In see the evils nf which we speak. Evil--, if they exist must be seen, or wu shall do iiQthiiiir tu corrrct them: For it is with communities as with individuals, and no one ays Fisher Am.'s is less likely in improve than the coxcomb who fancies that he has already learned out and has no deficiencies to Mipplv. As wo must rely upon our cummon Schouls fur instructing the great mass of the people, it would eocui that if anv measures are to be taken, or any ap proprialions nre lo be made by the legtsla tore for the dill'usioii of knowledge gener ally, those schools demand their first atten tion. Tney are the foundation not only ot ono whole system of public instruction, but of all our free institutions, " L"t our ru'ers tnko care, then, that this ba-is be not al lowed tu crumble nway. II it do so there will be torcnckinvrln thu political fabric, when it. will be too lute to apply a brace, disor dcr and confusion when il will bu too l.ile to take ihealarm, anil impending ruin when it will be too latu to escape it. lint let this foundation be laid deep and firm, not only in tnu laws and provisions ot our legisla ture, bul also in the heads and hearts of our people. 'The care of our higher seminaries will appropriately follow," We have see-i that the evils existing in onr prim-try schools, are the incompetency of teachers, nnd the want of all direct preparation for Iheir employment, super ficialuess in the mode of instruct ion, tlie neglect of elementary branches and tho in troduction of improper studies, constant change of books and teachers lack of at tendance on the pirl of pupils, and bad con struction and location of houses. Al! admit that these evils exist, though men may differ in opinion iu regard to the extent of them. For tho removal of these evils two things appear to us to bu indispensible. The first is a careful prepiration of in- strutters for Ihe busmen of lewiing. Tim prop-ira ion nf teachers U the tirst stop towards reform : until this is taken nil other measures will fail of their intended results. " Houses nnd funds nnd book's," says nn ablu writer " nre important, but they arn only lb') menus of cnablitig the minds oftho teachers to net upon tho minds of the tiunils ; and wu cannot liavo an en crgotic system of public instruction, till the minds nf llio teachers have noon prepared to act upon ihoso of their pupils to the best ndvanlagc." If the scientific preparation of teachers be tho first step, our next inquiry is hn.v can we soonest and most perfectly achieve an object, on every account an de sirable. The obvious answer is, establish an institution, cither separatu or in connex ion with one of our academies, for this very purpose, viz: to assist young men, first, in actiuinno; t ie requisite Knowledge, anu secondly, to make them acquaint oil with the hilosonhy of tlm voung mind and put them iu possession oftho best methods ofinstruc ttoti. Wo pretend nut to devise a pian.nui wo suppose the leading features of such an Institution would bo something like the fol lowing: 1st. It would have a Principal and perhaps assistant Professors in tho dif ferent departments 2nd. An appropriate library collected with rcloronco to the nu- jrcta nf the institution, containing nil the facts ot tho science ot education scattered along in the history of the world. 3 I. A chool of children, embracing both those losiring a general education, and those do signed particularly for teachers, in which chool the theories of the prolessors might bo exemplified in practice, for the benefit of those who nro learning the science of teaching. In those countries of Ilurnpo whom edu cation has taken its rank as a science, a preparatory seminary for teachers, like that we are suggesting, is thought, as necessary ns a medical school lor pnvsicians. in Prussia in 1020, there were !2P, such semi naries for tho training of teachers, (contain ing 1500 pupils, furnishing GOO now leach ors annually. The character oi our schools depends more upon the character of tho teachers than upon any thing else. Their influence will be strong or weak, good or bid, in proportion as their instructors, aro well or tilted tor their work. Whatever shall ho done by such an institution to elevate tho character ol teachers, will elevate the character of onr si-hnols nnd enlarge and strengthen their inlluencc on tho commnnt ty. Wo designed submitting some addt tional remarks on tho importance and bear nigs ot an institution or institutions in different parts: uf our slate, fur the scien tific preparation ol teachers, but having ul ready transcended our intended limits, wo tnut leave the wholo subject, after a few words upon another topic. I n complete our system and give energy and unity to its operations, wu have ex prcsseil our convictiun that there ought to be in each district nnd town, or nt least in the statu, a responsible Head or Supervisor who shall be required annually to present to the Lngi-lature a a'atenvnt of thu con dition of the Schools, e-ttnntes anil ac. counts of tho expenditure nf the school mo lies and plans for the improvomunt and better organization of ('oninion Schools. Tho system nf public in-itructi u in the State of Now V'ork has sum : distinctive and excellent, lealur-s. and it is vnrthy of serious consideration whether we might not most profitably copy ihein into our own plan. Tint feature especially which pro villus a superintendent to common school- as an executive officer of lb" government, in tins must important part nf lugtsiaiioii.de serves, in onr view, to be immediately a dopted by tho L -gislaturo of Vermont. Such an nlltcor (nnd ihe office might be blended in that of Secretary nf Slate as in New York) would bo a responsible head who without tho mo of any arbitrary p iw cr, wn.iid create n suiio-dinate responsi btlity in every town and di-trtct in the State. lie would bo what ho has been called. a centre nf motion, round which the present heterogeneous and discordant elements uf individual projects and plans nml wishes, may be mado to revolve, and bring order mil nf cnnfu-in.i. In nri.er to make any wise and permanent improve ment, facts, illustrating the condition ofnur schools must bo knoivn.-snoh a responsible Head of this department would collect and bring out these; facts, and annually Iny upon the desk of every member of our Legisla ture a cnmplcto account of the condition nf all our common schools, buch information wo mu-t have to enable our Legislators and nlhor friends, nf popular education, to act wisely in promoting this ftinihinonlal interest. Having expressed thus summari ly, our views respecting the evils existing in our primary Schools, and having advert ed to what wo deem necessi-y romo ftos inr their correction, wo now respect fully submit the whole subject to the considera tion of nn enlightened community and to thu action of their Inw-gtvors. JOHN K. coxvniisc.i WILLIAM 1UTOX, Committee DANILL OOODYHAU, of JOUX HOUGH, I Comicjiduii. N.WIU.U PUCK, j Such an Institution is now being oran. ed in connexio n with the Academy of I lines. burgh. Wo bespeak for it thu good wishes and patronage ol tho friends ol popular educa tion generally. Wo aro happy lo know that ihe Trustees under the recent provisions of their charter, aro taking hold of tho subject in earnest and that tho friends of education in the town and vicinity aro givin to them a prompt and hearty co-operation. Tho effort, if carried through, will produce great good to tho Stale, nnd prove to be, wo doubt not, the pioneer of improving and raising tho charac tor ofoui District Schools. it was found that every pirliclo of food and fuel h.id boon exhausted, and Ihu whole fam- ly . without doubt had fallen victims to tho. cum bincd horrors of cold nnd hunger. The father wns probably endeavoring to mako his way to a pile of wood at n little distance, nnd perish cd in the midst oftho attempt. ho complains oftho old ones, until bu destroys .'Jw the second, is the creation nf a respun his pupils' confidencu iu Hum, and prevents tible lioartl oj Supervision, ivhich shall cn their receiving from Iheui the benulit thoy sure enmpetency in teachen awl shall aver. might uthorwisu ti'jtaiu ; thus much timu is fatte, examine and report to the public lo-a in undoing what was duuo tho preceding whither their duties are faith fatly dhUiai"'- wintei by a leather whoso qualifications were C(, A whole Family Frozen to Death .'The Ilavoretraw l imes gives thu appalling do tails of a most melancholy event in tiio vi cinity of that town. On Saturday Inst as a person had made Ins way into the mountains which have been inaccessible until the late moderate weather, ho found, after passing the Orange cuunty line, a man in n sitting posluru near n cabin. On approaching liini, it was discovered that ho was frozen lo death, with a wooden shovel in his hands, with which ho had evidently been laboring to open a passage trom his snow bound hah nation. Tho traveller then entered tho cabin, and found on tho tloor tho frozen body ol a middle aged woman anil twu chil dren. Thu neighbors weru then raised thu nearest living ut ihu distance of it mile and a half and upon examining the house IMPORTANT FROM FLORIDA. Wo nro indebted to the New York American for the following interesting synopsis ot the interesting intelligence from Florida founded on letters received from the head quarters of Gen Scott. By letters received this morning from Picolata of 2d instnnt, wc nre pained to learn that the United States forces led by Gnn. Gaines, have been unsuccessful in nn attack upon the main body of the Indians, 6ituatcd on the Ouithlnchoochcc, nnd after the loss ol valuable lives were reduced to entrench themselves short of ammunition and provisions until nid could bo sent to them, l lio particulars, as tar us ascer tained, may bo thus summarily stated : Gen. lintnes lelt Tampa liav with 11-10 men, nnd roacncti r nri iving on ine "ti February, taking with him only enough subsistence to last to that place. There he called upon Gon Clinch for I 1,000 rations, but only iu,uuu could be furnished, sntl those had just been placed there by order of Gen Scott, for the support of n battnl- nn of Georgia loot, then on the march to Fort King. Thus iiisuflicicntly provisioned ho made n dah for tho Ouilhlachoochoo near Gon Clinch's former battle ground, where it was truly believed tho main body of tho enemy were. He arrived on tho west bank of the river on oaturday evening 27ih. Tho Indians on the opposite bank immediately opened a fire on him, which was continued all Saturday from each side, noitborparty crossing. At C o'clock on Sunday evening Gen. Gaines sent an ex press to Gon. Clinch slating his situation, and calling for more nmunitlon nnd provis ions. His loss up to that time was two volunteers from Louisiana killed, nnd Ion regulars and volunteers wounded; among tho latter, Lieutenant Izard, of the dra goons dangcrnuly. On Monday morning, tli-s '-'3th about 10 o'clock, while Gen. G linns was preparing men to crn-- the river, ho was attacked nn three sides of Ins camp by the Indians, who kept up a vigo rous assault lor about two hours, frequently approaching very near his cnt ronchinents. They were finally repulsed, with, as is sup posed, considerable loss. Tho loss of Gen. Gaines' command was nno sergeant killod, and 10 regulars. and 20 volunteers, wounded ; among the regulars Lieut. Duncan. Thu force oftho Indians was estimated nt 1,100 men. Gen Gaines was entrenching himself and acting n thu defensive, having luadu no sortie. Ho calls loudly for more forcn, ammunition, and provision--. Hi situation is a very critical one nnd he tuny be com pelled to retreat upon Fort King, n distance of 30 mile', nt the hazard of groat loss for no timely relief run reach him. Cnpt. Hitchcock is with In m iu tho capacity nt Adjutant General, and nearly half Ins force is regulars. There arc straggling parties of the en cmy nil over the country. A party of several were seen near Volusia, and a party of about 2," were seen by some negro"." 2" miles above this, iwo days ago. f-'rch tracks were also seen this morning, nu tins roads bslwoen this and St. Augustine. It is also supposed there is a body of scvernl hundred 30 miles southeast of Tjmp.i, on Peaoo Creek. 'Thus far our informal inn extends. Tho conduct nf Gen. (iatnes in this mat tor must subject him, wo apprehend, to it heavoy responsibility. In going tn Florida nl nil, bo violated his duty, for lie was un der orders tu proceed with tho Gth regiment nf Infantry from Jefferson barracks to the frontiers nl Mexxn. Wh -n in Florida ho becoun necessarily subject tn (I mi. Scott who was specially directed to 'nke charge of the war there nnd should not have moved one foot without the order of Ihnt ConuiHiider thisseomi plain ami incon trovertible, lint Gen. G linci. auxi ins. wo cannot but npprehot.d, to forestall Geu. Scott, between whom nnd himself, it n known, an old grudge exists, marches from a well provisioned fort Tamp i Hay, upon one that had long been beleaguered and cut off from supplies, Fori King with only just enough provisions lo sustain him on his march. This was a first and capitil fault. Arrived there, nnd doublless made aware of tho plan of campaign arranged by Gen. Scott (which is understood to be that nf completely isolating and surround ing the Indians, and thus compelling them to nn unconditional surrender,) uen. liaines called upon the commandant of Fort King for rations to enable linn tn make nn immediato anil independent attack on the Indians. A portion onlv of what ho called for could be given, nnd thfs out of stores provided in advance by Gen. Scott, lor a eu-taining force then marching upon rorlKtng. 1 his was n sccontl grcivous fault, fur lis effect might, and we fear will. bo, to derange the combinations of tho commanding General as to cause fatal de lays in llio campaign Thus scantily sup plied, however. General Uainos marched to attack the Indians on or near tho old baltllo ground, and of course therefore, knowing that the river was unfordablo. Yet ho marched on. without boats or ior ions, nnd ns might be expected, found" th Indians, flushed with former success read to oppose Ins crossing, and was himself re duced, after two days skirmishing, to on trench himself and rci on tho defensive, until ho could receive reinforcements ane supplies, or until famine and the enenn should compel him to a perilous it may be conio an impracticable retreat. Twelve hundred troops, of which one half regulars! reduced by a band of 1500 savages, to acre, on the defensive ! ! nnd perhaps finally tf. seek safety in (light ! ! What a fearful rc-pousibility does not this entail upon thr ollicer who led them into Biich n dilemma t It is probable that these accounts ha'' reached Washington, and induced as i'", is rumored ihe immediate departure, fjl tho scene of war. oftho Camnmnder-itr Chief, General .Macomb. Whether t tin will help the matter much remains to b- There is a search making for the licit of Hugh, John nnd Daniel Mustier in thf c-uuutry. tu whuin un ustutu o( i nulliui has recently descended in England

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