Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, May 12, 1837, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated May 12, 1837 Page 1
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NOT THE GLORY OF CiESAItJ II U T THE WELFARE OF ROME. BY Jff.B. STACY. From ihe Baltimore Farmer. SPRING CROPS-CORN. This grain, ns wc nil lnnw, is, when Well cultivated, capable of yielding mure grain In llio acre more farinaceous mntc rial than nny other, nnc) such is its pecii liar aptitude to occomtnodnto itself cither to the long summers of our more southern region, or the short, ones of I he cast, that varieties whdi take all the fructifying in fluence of tho former to ripen their ker nels, when translated to the latter, so ac commodate themselves to the moro brief duration of summer in that quarter, as to perform all its work of maturing before the nutuninal frost". But with nil its excellent qualities of nulrilon, productiveness, and Kicclimalion, there is no crop more uncer tain or precarious: there is none which octter rewards high and neat cultivation, or punishes with moro scycrity, he who tampers with iis growth in n slovenly manner, on soil despoiled of its virgin strength, and when niggardly denied o-sis tance by the besotted being, whose cupidi ty and ignorance have made him at once as reckless of his own personal interest ns of the necessities of the earth, whence he would impiously draw his sustenance We sny, it is on uncertain and precarious crop, and so it is: while Earl Stimson, nf New York, that prince of corn-grower-!, will average upward of 100 bushels to the acre in a crop of 5,000 bushels, wo could point to those who do not, in many instance-', make over two barrels to the acre. Perhaps those gentlemen would sny, "All. but Mr Stiinson's land is very rich, and then he manures highly." Not so: nntu rally, the soil of Mr. S. farm is very poor, being 54 per cent, of pure silex, and only three of the carbonate of lime; and so far from his manuring highly, he docs not give mire than an ordinary portion of manures, lie "manures his land only nncc in sir, excepting the application nf platter to his corn. He allows live loads of barn-yard manure, nod three of lenrbed ashes, to an acre, and this is always spread upon the surface after ploughing for '.he first crop, nnd cither harrowed or ploughed in by a very light ploughing. In ploughing. Ii never permits the plough to go deeper than three inches; the sod ii turned over flat, nnd then rolled, it being his great object to keep nil the vegetable matter on the yurfnee." With this moderate supply of 1') want of hi J, for ten years ri"r to 1032. his crops of com ranging above 5 000 bushels annually, have averaged the product s'ated, viz. over 100 hu-hels to the acre. We have not exhibited I his plan of Mr. S'iinson because it meeis our en. t ire approbation, for there are parts of il to which we would object, and yet llio rc tull of his labors, the safest mode of arrt ving at the troth, would tell us that hi? plan isjutt suited to his liyht sandy soil. If left to our own judgment, wo would go deeper; though we had to u-o Ihe subitra turn plough, we would find a highway for the larger roots of Uiu corn to draw their liquid cordial from the bosom of the earth. The great art, in Mr. Stiiuson's case, consists in doing every thing at the right time; he never permits his corn to sufier in consequence of weeds, or a baked nnd parchrd earth the. weed, before they can possibly operate injuriously, are expelled, ond Ihe earth is always kept louse and fresh around iheplnnts, attracting moisture from the atmosphere, nnd drinking in Ihe sweet and animating dews as they fall; thus preserving to the growing corn a con linuotis supply of wholesome, refreshing nnd digestive aliment. We should men tion here, cursorily, that his corn rows are hut 27 inches apart, that he plants the small northern corn, and leaves four plants in each hill, so that each acre in culture by him contains 30,300 plants. The stating of this latter fact, points to us a moral, which we could wish our rea ders generally, and particularly those in (ho middle, southern nnd western states, to pay particular attention to, ns we desire that they should profit by it. It is on un deniable fact, that all very large prodttds of com have been the result of close plan ling. In this fact, their greater assiduity .nnd neatness in it t cuhure, and tl e appli cation of proper manures, are we to find 1 ho true causes why the eastern farmers so far excel us in the product of this inilis pcnsoblc groin. While most of ue have our rows ranging from 0 to 5 I 2 feet, with but two plants in a hill, the more economi cnl Yankee places his rows at from 27 inches to 3 feet, and instead of having two plants at each point, there arc four. Now let us sec what an immense difference in product is thus brought about. Rows 27 inches cither way apart, 4 plants in a hill, as wc have before shown, give us 30,300 plants; rows 5 feet either way, 2 plants in o hill, give us but 17-12 hills, c r 3404 plants: while ihc-Jirtt, yielding a gill of shelled corn for each stalk, is competent to grow 1 18 bushels C quarts to the acre, the latter, nt the same ralin of yield, can only give (he product of 13 bushels IG quarts; or supposing the ears on the wide planted corn should produce 3 times os much as that planted close, or 3 gills to the stalk, how stands the account then? Why 38 bushels 10 quarts is the product; and, in deed, if it thould average a pint to llio etalk, still its yield is fur, very far, behind that of the closely planted corn ; for in that event, it would reach but 51 bushels; be ing less than 50 per cent, of tlio product of the other. According to Mr, Stimson's rotation of crops and plan ol improvement, Ins corn crop gets no manurn whatever, except plaster on the hill. His rotation is J. Wheat manured. 2. Corn--plastered. 3. Flax, Ryo or Barley, g' Clover and Herds' gross, G. Pasture. Having minted the success of Mr. Slim, eon in evidence of the efficacy of close planting, we will sustajn the propriety of his system by shovying that several others have produced large crop by the same menus : Mr. Stevens, of Now Jersey, nenr N. York, averaged on 3 acres, upon each nf which he placed 2!!,0!J0 plants, 1 10 bushels of corn per ncre; the distance nbout 5 feet one way by 3 inches in Ihe drill. Mr. Ludlow, of Now York, raised on three acres, at the rate of 90 bushels to the acre ids rows were 4 feet, (ho plants 0 inches asunder. Mr. Lorain, of Pa., raised 01 bushels to the acre; his plan was double rows 0 I 4 feet wide the number of plants 20,000. Messrs. Pratt, of Madison county, N. York, obtained 170 bushels per acre ; they used 7 bushels of seed to the acre, the plants being subsequently reduced to the requisite number. They grow this prodt gious crop 3 rows in a drill, 3 fret from centres of drills, as is represented in the following diagram: -o 0 o o o O O O O .0 - o o o o o Putting 42,500 plants on an acte, and rai ting 170 bushels and 4 quarts. Judge Duel, on a small scale, raised at the rateot 110 bushels 10 quarts per acre. We might enumerate numerous other persons, hut Will refrain from flninrr an. nnil shall content ourself with having proved i nc iaci, mai me large products urc the re sult of close planting. From the Boston Galnxy. TIIH TWO WIVES. 'The blast howls like the scream of a wild gonso and the feathers will soon fall in the shape of snow flakes," Eaid Alonzo to us one afternoon, as wo were standing by the comnr ofthc street, and dreaming of sleigh bells and warm brown hearths. 'Ere you can reach your house," continued he, "the storm will burst forth. Come then, no home with mo Yon l-.m-n lmn-,1 of my Maria a paragon of a woman the host of wives Allan! You shallsce how she will receive her husband's friend." Alonzo had mentioned his wife to mo be fore, and although there was nothing par. ticularlv nniraffimr in the l esrrinf inn. vl one that you often hear of, you feel some curiosity io see. ys wc Ineil towards the mansion which my friend rented, wc met our friend Daggot. He loo had a wife, and straitway, when we had parsed, did Alonzo full to commisscrating dm fate of his friend Daggct. "A wife hehasindfd,"said Alonzo. "but no more like mine thnn ilm aches with impotency ot the thought! v uy, bit sue nam not iie hca:t of woman which is or ought to be. all sensibility. My friend Daggel is a fellow of mind of genius but unhappily he is united to a woman who cannot appreciate him, nnd who is a cnmnlcto nnh.ilv. Itm thr.. , my house. Killer and see what woman can uu. As Alonzo pronounced these words, the door (low open: I glanced at the staircase, and saw that a broom had not passed over it very lately . The hall lamp was nut rim med, and the brasses on the doors had not seen rotten stone in many days. Wo en tered Ihe room. A young lady sat by the window, apparently counting her dangers for no other occupation seemed to engross her attention. Her dress was good, so far as the OtialltV of the cloth wn rniwnrnml but ihorc was a great lack of neatness iiiereiu, anu even me vulgar idea of soap and water intruded as we looked upon the isthmus which joined her head to h-;r shoulders. But we had not long to make these remarks: as she aroso mi nnr nntrnnnn and embraced Alonzo as if she had not seen him before in a month. I was ml roduccd: nnd Maria gave us to understand, that os the acquaintance and friends nf her incom. paraaiu nonzo. we were abundantly wcl Having Stumbled OVOr n hronin nnl Imml box, which lay in elegant negligence in mo iiiiuuiu oi i m noor, we found our way to n chair, thickly covered with dust. It was rather latu in the afternoon, and we were glad to hear Alonzo toll her to place the dinner on the inlile. Kim rnnl',..,! ttn. lainly my Alonzo. nothing gives mo' more pleasure max 10 wan upon you, you know it is my meat nnd drink to obey your wish es." Alonzo turned to us with a smile of tri uuiph, os she went slowly from the room, and said, "can I avoid adoring a woman who so readily executes all my orders. You heard what she said ?" We bowed and waited. I become ox tremoly hungry, but in the course of half an nour, we heard die slow and heavy slop of Maria, annronchi thought we, wo shall break our fast. Tho raw air gives one a tremendous apoctitc." Maria entered, hut instead of bearing in her hands n smoking platter or a table, her arms were loaded with books and pictures. Wo now exnected thnt A Inn ,un!.i ously chide, but he aguin glanced at us niuoi uiuuipuunuy, anu whispered, 'sec what it is to have an intellectual wife !" Wc were now compelled to examine o dozen volumes and listen to tho remarks of the en lohtcned fUni-m. mm, i,.i dined very near the naked tree on the wes luru uiu, ueioro uio subject of dinner was again mentioned when Alonzo seemed to start from a trance, and rathor pettishly re quested that dinner might bo brought im mediately. The harsh tones of his voico broughi tears into tho eyes of Maria, who threw her arms about his neck, and declared that she could not livo if ho was oflended witli her. This was all very interesting, ol course, and as the affecting interview las ted somo limo, it seemed to give us a bet tor appetite for dinner. After Alonzo had soothed his beloved, nnd dried her tears, ho discovered that his ruffles had suffered much from llio embrace, and gently hinted that ho should like to put them off, and now equip his neck and bosom, i "How unfortunately !" cried she, "lliey FRIDAY j have not yet como from the washerwo man's." 'But Maria, my dear, you can cnd for them." "They nre but just gone," answeed she pulling up the heel of her bIioc, to hide a hole in tho slocking.'' "Why Maria ! how many times have I requested you In have a change of linen alwnys on hand ?" "I know it," eaid she, plaintively, "alns ! I am nlwnvs making those unhappy whom I love !" "Dnn't weep, denr Maria," began Alonzo. "Well, said wo," looking at our watch, and moving towards the door "wo have on appointment, nnd "Surely," eried Alonzo, "not before din nrr hurry, Maria, and have it on tho ta ble." Maria was gone a quarter of an hour, when she come in with a platter of meat, which she carried so dainlly, just touching it with the tip of her fingers, that, it slip, ped from hor grasp the di-h was broken to fragments, and I ho meat rolled upon the carpet. Alonzo brokn forth in a violent passion, and nccidunlly set foot upon the grease when he came tumbling to the floor. His wife screamed and clung to his neck, demanding if he was hurt, and wo forth with look our departure. Hungry, cold nnd weary, wo passed swiftly along the streets. Evening had set in, and we saw a bright cheerful light shi ning thro' the blinds of a neat dwelling on the olhcr side nf the street. Dagget's voico was the next moment heard. " He stood on the steps of his house, and invi ted ii to walk in. We did so. His wife received us without much ceremony, for she was busied nbout household affairs. She asked us if wo had supped, and when wo told her we had not yet dined, she moved out of the room ns noiseless ns n spirit, nnd as quick as lightning. We scarcely had lime to mark her neat ly formed ancle, and pretty feel before n snowy cloth was spread upon tho table. Five minutes sufficed to cover it with vi ands of a most delicious flavor, and cooked in-a style seldom surpassed. When her hubond spoke, she was all attention and before he had finished, Ihe thing wanted was produced the half expressed com mand was executed. It was true, she did not tell him she loved him like a' god but administered to his comforts, and anticipa ted his wishes with a celerity nnd proprie ty that novels seldom describe. Wo left the house comfortable in mind nnd body, and resolved when wo took a wife, io choose one who loved ih with her hands and feet as well os with her heart. MR. WEBSTER'S SPEECH. But, gentlemen, it is the currency, the currency of die country, it is this great subject, so interesting, so vital, to all clas scs of the community, which has been des tined to feel the most violent assaults nf executive power. The consequences nre around us, and upon ns. Not unforeseen, not unforntold, have como, bringing distress for the present, and fear nnd alarm f,r the fulure. Ifil ho denied, that the present condition of things has nriscn from the president's interference with the revenue, tho first answer K that when he did inter fere, juel such consequences wore predicted. U was then said, and repealed, and pressed upon the public nttcntinn, that that intcrfu ronce must necessarily produce derange ment, embarrassment, loss of confidence and commercial distress. 1 pray yon, gen Demon, In recur to tho debates of lfJ32, 1033, nnd 103-1, nnd than to decide whoso opinions have proved to bo correct. When the treasury experiment was first announ end, who supported, nnd who opposed it? Who warned the country against it ? Who were they who endeavored to slay the vio lence of party, to arrest the hand of execu. live authority, nnd to convince die people, that t his experiment was delusive; that its object was merely to increase executive power, and that its effect, sooner or later, must he injurious and ruinous. Gentlemen, it is fair to bring tho opinions of political men to tho test of experience. It is just to judge of them by their mens urcs, and their opposition to measures ; and for myself, nnd those political friends with whom I have acted, nn this Rnhicet nf ,). currency, I am ready to abide the test. iiui ueioro the subject of the currency, and its present most embarrassing stnle is discussed, I invito your attention, gentle men, to tho history of executive proceed ings, connected with it. I prdposo to slate to you a series of facts ; not to argue upon them, not to mystify them, not to drnwonv unjust inference from them ; hut merely to stalo the case, in the plainest manner, ns I understand it. And I wish, gentlemen, that in order to bo nblc to do this, in the best and most convincing manner, I had the ability of my learned friend, (Mr Ogden) whom you have all so often heard, and who 6tatcs his case, usually, in such a manner, that when 6talcd, it is already very well argued. Let us see, gentlemen, what the train of occurrences has been, in regard to our rev. enuc and finances; nnd when theso occur rences ore stated, I leavo to every man tho right to decide for himself, whether our present difficulties have, or have not, arisen from attempts to oxtend the executive nu. thorily. In giving this detail, I shall bo compelled to speak of tho late Bank of die United States; hut 1 shall spook of it his torically only. My opinion of its utility, and of tho extraordinary ability ond success, with which its affairs worn conducted, for many years beforo termination of its char ter, is well known. I Imvn often express cd it, and I havo not altered it. But at prcsqnt I speak of the bank, only os it makes a nccossary pari in tho history of events, which I wish now to recapitulate. Mr Adams commenced hisodministrntion in March 1025. Ho had been elected by the House of Representatives, and began his career as President under a tdrong and MAY 12, 1837. powerful opposition. Prom the very first day, he was warmly, even violently, "nppos cd in nil his measures: ond Ibis opposition, os wo all know, continued without abate, ment, cither in force or aFporily, through his whole tcim of four years. Gentlemen, l am not abmit to say wheiher this opposi tion wns well or ill-founded, just or unjust. I only state tho fnct, ns connected with nth. rr facts. Tho Bank of the United Stales during these four years or Mr Adam's ad ministration, was in full operation. It was performing the fiscal duties, enjoined on it by its character; it had established nuiner nils offices was maintaining a largccirculn. tion, and transacting a vast business in ex change. Its charter, conduct, nnd man ner of administration, were all well known to the whole country. Now there arc two or three things wor thy of especial notice. One is, thnt during the whole of this hentcd political conlro vcrsy, from 1025 to 1020, the Parly which was endeavoring to produce a change of administration, brought no charge of po litical interference ajainst tho Bank of the United Stales. If any thing, it was rath er a favorite with tin parly generally. Certainly, the party, did not ascribe to it undue attachment to other parties, or to the existing administration. Another important fact is, that, during tho whole of the eamo period, those who had espoused the cause of General Jack son and who sought to bring about a rcvo lution under his name, did not propose the destruction of the bank, or its discontin uance, as one of the objects which were to ho accomplished by theproposud revolution They did nol tell the country that the bank was unconstitutional ; they did not declare it unccessary ; hey did not pro. pose to get nlong without it, when they como into power thcrmclycs. If individ uals entertained any such purposes, they kept them much to themselves. Tho par ly, ns a parly, avowed nr-ne such. A third fact, worthy of all notice, is, that during this period there was no complaint about the state of the currency, either by the country generally or by the party then in opposition. In March, 1029, Gen. Jackson was inau. giirntcd. He camo in on profession of re form. He announced reform of all abuses to be the great and leading object of his fu. tore administration ; and in his inaugural address he pointed out the main subjects of this reform. Bui thu bank was not one of them. It was not stud the bank was un constitutional. It was nol said it was un neccepnry or useless. Il was not said that it had failed to do all dial had been hoped or expected from it, in regard to tho cur rency. In March, 1029, then, the bank stood well, very well, with the now admin istration. It was regarded, so far as ap pears, a3 entirely constitutional, frco from political or parly taint, nnd highly useful. It had, as yet, found no place in the cata loguo of abuses to bo reformed. But, gentlemenf nine months wrought a wonderful change. New lights broke forth, before, these mouths had rolled away; and the President, in Iih message to Con gress in December, 1029, held very differ ent language, and manifested very different purposes. Although the bank had then five or six years of its charter unexpired, he yet call ed Ihe attention of Congress, very pointedly,' to die subject, and declared 1. That ihe constitutionality of the bank was well doubted by many; 2. That its utility or expediency was also well doubted ; 3. That all must admit that ii had failed in undertaking to establish or maintain n sound and uniform currency; and 4. That the truo bank for tho use of the government of die United States would be a hank which should bo founded on the revenues and credit of tho government it self. These propositions appeared to me, at tho time, as very extraordinary, nnd the Inst one as very startling. A bank founded nn tho revenue and credit of the govern ment, and managed and administered by the executive, was a conception, which I had supposed no man, holding the chief ex ecutive power in his own hands, would ven. turo to put forth. But the question now is, what had wrought this great change of feeling and of purpo.-c in regard to the bank? What events had occurred, between March and December thai should havo caused thu bank, so constitutional, so useful, so peace able, and so safe an institution, in the first of these months, to start up into the char acter nf a monster, and become so horrid and dangerous, in tho last? Gentlemen, let us sec what the events wero which had intervened. General Jackson was elected in Decem ber, 1020 His term was to begin in March, 1029, A session of Congress look place, therefore, between his election nnd the commencement of his administration. Now, gentlemen, the truth is. thai du ring this session, nnd a little beforo Ihe commencement of tho new administration, a disposition was manifested by political men to interfere with tho management of tho bank. Members of Congress under took to nominato or recommend individuals as directors in the branches or offices of the hunk. They were kind enough some times to make out whnlo lists or tickets nnd to send them to -Philadelphia, contain ing the names of those whose appointment would bo satisfactory to General Jackson's friends. Portions of the correspondence nn these subjects, havo been published in somo of the voluminous reports and other documents connected with the bank, but perhaps have not been generally heeded or noticed. At first, tho Bank merely declined, os gently as possiblo, complying with those sitnilnr requests. But like npplications began to show themselves from many quar ters, and n very marked enso occurred ns early os Juno, 1029. Certain members ol tho Legislature of Now-Hampshiro nppli cd lor thango in tho Presidency of tho Branch, which woa established in Itial State. A member of iho Sonnio nf the United States, wrote, both to tho Presi dent of dm Bank, nnd lo the Socrotnry of the Treasury, strongly recommending n change, and in his letter lo tho Secretary, hinting very distinctly nt political con siderations, ns the grnund of tho movement, Other officers in the scrvico of the gov eminent Innk nn interest in the matter, nnd urged the change; the Secretary him. self wrote to tho Bank, suggesting and recommending it. The limo had come, then, for tho Bank to lake its position. It did lake it ; and in my judgement, if it had not acted ns it did act, not only would thoso who had the care of it, have boon highly censurable, but a claim would have been yielded to entirely inconsistent with n government of laws, nnd subversive of the very foundations of republicanism. A long correspondence bet ween the Sec. rotary of tho Treasury nnd the President of the Bnnk ensued, The directors deter mined that they would not surrender ci ther their rights or their duties to the con. trol or supervision of the executive govern tncnt. They said they hnd never appoin ted their directors on political grounds, nnd they would not remove them on such grounds. They had avoided politics. They had sought for men of business, ca pacity, fidelity, and experience in the man ogemcnt of pecuniary concerns. They owed duties, they said, to the government which they meant lo perform, faithfully and impartially, under all administrations; and they owed duties to the stockholders of the bank, which required to disregard political considerations in their appoint ments. This correspondence ran along into the fall of the year, and finally terminated in a stern and unanimous declaration, made by the directors, and transmitted to the Secro tary of the Treasury, that Ihe Bank would continue to bo independently administered, and that the directors, once for all, refused to submit to the supervision of the execu tive authority, in nny of its branches, in the appointment of local directors and ngents. This resolution decided the chnracter of the future. Hostility toward the Bank, thence forward became the settled policy of the government; and the message of Decern bcr, 1029, was the clear announcement of that policy. It tho Bank had appointed those directors, thus recommended bv members of Congress, if it had submitted nil its appointments to die supervision of tho Treasury; if it had removed the Pres ident of the 'New Hampshire branch; if it had, in all things, showed itself a comply ing, political, parly machine, instead of an independent institution ; if it had done this, I leavo oil man to judge whether such an endro change nf opinion, as to its. con stitutionality, its utility, and its good effects on the currency, would have happened be twocn March and December From the moment in which th'e bank as. sertcd its independence of Treasury control, and its elevation above mere party purpos es, down to tho end rff its charter, and down even to die presort day, it has been the subject, to wh'yilrf'KJj'SC'tcctest phrases of party denunciatrnhjh'nvc been plentifully applied. .v But Congre3!g5?ife.tcd no disposition to establish ji,tT-TCasury Bank. On the contrary, it warsfltisfied, nnd so was Ihe country most -unquestionably, with the bank then 'existing. In the summer of 1032, Congress passed an act for continuing the clfarfer of the bank by strong majorities in both houses. In the House of Repre sentatives. I think, two thirds of tho rnnm hers voted for the bill. The President gave it his negative; and as there were not two-thirds of the Senate, though a large majority wero for it, the bill failed to bo come n law. But it was not enough that a continu ance of the charter of the bank was thus refused. It had the deposite of tho public money, nnd this it wns entitled to by law, lor the few years which yet remained nt its chartered term But this it was deter mined it should nut enjoy. At the com mencement of the session of 1032-3, n grave and sober doubt was expressed by tho Secretary of the Treasury in his official communication, whether the public monies were safo in the custody of the bank ! I confess, gentlemen, whnn I look back to this suggestion thus officially made, so so. nous in its import, so unjust, if not woll founded, and so greatly injurious to the credit of the bank, nnd injurious, indeed, to the credit of the whole country, I cannot but wonder t hat nny man of intelligence and charncter should havo been willing to make it. I read in it, however, the first lines nf another chapter. I saw an attempt was now to be made to remove the depos itee, and such nu attempt was made that very session. But Congress was not to be prevailed upon to accomplish the end by its own authority. U wns well ascertained that neither House would consent to it. The House of Representatives, indeed, at the heel of the session, decided against the proposition by a vary largo majority. The Legislative authority having been thus invoked, and invoked in vain, it was resolved lo stretch farther the long nrm of Executive power, nnd by thai arm to reach and striko tho victim. It so happened that I was in this city in May 1033, and hero learned, from a very authentic source, that Iho Doposites would bo removed by the Prrsident's order ; and in June, as after wards appeared, thnt order was givon. Now it is obvious, gentlemen, that thus far the changes in our financial and fiscal system wero effected, not by Congress, but by tho Executive. Not by law, hut by tho will and the power of t ho President. Congress would havo continued tho char ter oftho Bank; but the President nega lived tho bill. Congress was of opinion that the depnsitcs ought not lobe removed hut the President removed them. Nor was this all. The public moneys being withdrawn from dm custody which the Inw linn provided, by Executive power alone, that snmo nowur selected thn nlnrea fur Vttictr fulure keeping. Particular bnnks, VOI,. X No. 516 existing under slato chnrtcrs, were ch soi. With thojo especial nnd pnr!icular arrangements were made, and the pubhu moneys wore deposited in Iheir vtion' Henceforward these selected bnnks w rc lo operate on the revenue and credit oftho Government, nnd thii3 the original scheme nromnlirntnd in the annual mnssngo nf Do- erniher 1029 was substantially carried into effect. Hern wero batiks chosen by Iho treasury, nil arrangements made with I hem, made by the treasury ; a set of duties pre-cribetl to bo performed by thctn to llio treasury, and these banks were to hold die whole proceeds ol the public revenue. In all this congress had neither part nor lot. No law hud caused thn rctnovnl of the deposites ; no law had authorised thu selection of deposite stale hanks; no law had prescribed the terms on wlrch iho revenues should be placed in such banks. From llio b"gluiilug of ihu linf1-" to dm end, it was nil executive edict. Anu now gentlemen, I ask if it be not remarka ble, thnt in a country professing to bo under a government of laws, such great and important changes in one of its most essential and vital interests should bo brought about without any change ot law. without uny enactment of the legis lature whatever. Is such a power trusted to Ihe executive of any government in which tho executive is separated by clear ind well defined lines from the legislative lonnrtnipnt ? The currency of the coun trv. Both arc intimately 'connected oi d both nre subjects of legal, nol ol execu tive regulation. It w worthy of nonce, that the writers ot tho Fcderalst, in discussing the powers which Ihe constitution conferred on the president, mndc it mntter of commendation thnt it withdraws this subject altogether from his gra-p. 'He can prescribe nn rules,' say they, "concerning commerce or the currency of the country." And so wn have been all taught to think, under all former administrations. But we have now seen that tho president, and the president alone does prescribe the rule concerning, the currency. He makes it, and he altars it. He makes one rule for one branch of the revenue, and another rule for another He makes one rule for the citizen nf one state, and another for the citizen of another state. This, it is certain, is one part of tho Treaory order of July last. Bnl at last enngress interfered, and un dertook to regu'ate tho doposites of tho public moneys. It passed the law of July, 1330, placing the subject under legal con. trol restraining the power of the executive, subjecting tho thank to liabilities and do. lies on one hand, and securing them against e.cnutivesfnvoritisin on the other. But this law contained another important pro-vi-iou; which was, that nil the Money in the treasury, beyond what was necessa y for the current expenditures of the gnverr -ment, should bo deposited with the State". This measure passed both houses by verp unusual majorites, yet it hardly escape a veto. It obtained only a cold asent a slow, reluctant and hesitating approval1' and an early moment was seized lo array against il n long list of objections. But' the law passed. The ninney in thu Irea-1 ury beyond the sum of five million-, was to go to tho states; it has so gone, and the treasury for the present is relieved from the burden of a surplus. But now observe other coincidence'. In the annual message of December 1035, the President quoted the fact of the rapid ly increasing sale oftho public lanilsas proof of high national prosperity. He alluded to that subject, certainly with much satis, faction, and apparently in something of the tone of exultation. There was nothing said nbout monopoly, not n wnrd nbout issues of paper, to pay for the lands. All was prosperous, and all was full of evidence of a wise administration of gov ernment, all was joy and triumph. Bui iho'idea of a 'deposite or distribution oftho surplus money with the people, sud denly damped this effervescing happiness. The color ot die rose, was gone, and every tiling now looked gloomy and black. Now no more felicitation or congratulation, on account of the rapid sales cf the public hinds; no more of this most decisive proof of national prosperity and happiness. The executive must takes up n melancholy strain, lie sings of monopolies of specu lation, of worthless paper, of loss both of land and money, of the. tnultiplic idou of Banks, and tho danger of paper issues; nnd the end of the canto, the calnstrophe, i- that lands shall no longer bo sold but for gold and silver alone. The object of all this is clear enough. Il was lo diminish the income from iho public lands. Hut no desire for such n diminution had been mani. fested, so long as the money was likely to bo suflercd to remain in the treasury. But n growing conviction that somo-other dis position mint be made of the surplus awa kened attention to die means of preventing that surplus. Toward the end oftho last session, gen tlemen, a proposition wns brought forward in Congress for such an alteration nf thn law. as should admit payment for public lands to bo made in nothing but gold and silver. The mover voted for his own prop osition; but I do not recollect that any other member concurred in the vote. Tho proposition was rejected nt once; but, as in other casos, that which Congress refus ed to do, thu cxncnlivo puwor did. Ten days nftur Congress ndjourned, haying had this matter before it, nnd having refused lo act upon it, by nmkmg any alteration in tho existing laws, a Treasury order was issued, commanding that every thing ho done, which Congress hnd boon requested lo do, nnd had refused to do. Just us in the caso of I ho removal of tho deposites, the execu. live power acted in this case nlso,agnin-t tho known, well uiulerttood, and recently ex pressed will oftho representatives oftho people. There never has been a moment when the Legislative will wnuld havu sanc-ti-uicd llin object ol dial nrdor. Probably never a -moment in which any twenty indi vidua! members of Congicss would havo

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