Newspaper of Burlington Free Press, March 9, 1855, Page 1

Newspaper of Burlington Free Press dated March 9, 1855 Page 1
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Wat YOL. XXyil WHOLE NO. 1,4,36. BURLINGTON, YT., FRIDAY, MARCH 9, 1855. NEW SERIES, VOL. 9, NO. 26. lUcckli JTvcc JiJvcss. rrinltd at A. 0 Coltrge Ulrtct, Ihirtmtlcn, IV. ono. vr. & a,, L'nirons a in Froi'iiietomi. Terms of Sulcrlpllon. For Village Subjcrlbern. euriiltcd y tlio Carrier $2 50 Tf paid atrictlyin ndrance. - - - 2 00 , For Mull Subscriber, and tlio-e who tako tt nt the Office, 2 Of) If paid strictly In ndanco, 1 50 j Who pay not In ndvancn but before tlx month, 1 75 j After tlx months, 2 00 Interest chnrgeablc after tho year'a end. Term of StiWriptlon lor Dnllj rice Prr. I To illflgo Bubserlbcr?, per annum, - ?5 00 To those who receive it by Mali, for tlx mouths 1 00 Or per annum, - 4 00 ALWAYS II ADVANCE. (a'Xo subscription stopped until all arrearages are paid, except nt tho option of tbo publisher, or discontinued unless by positive orders. Trice for VclvrrtMn;: in AVtM'My, One square, 10 lines or less in minion solid, three insertions, - - SI 00 Each Insertion after the third, 2 cts. per line. Legal notices ten cents a line, inure or ko, for three weeks. Yearly advertisers occupying four fiiares or more with privilege of change, at a fair discount. 5" Th" privilege- of yearly adrcrllscrs Is limited to their own Immediate- business. In their own nnmoj and all advertisements for the benefit of other per sons, as well as legal advertisements and advertise ments of auction sales, and advertisements with tho name of other persons, sent in by them, must bo paid for at the usual rates. No report, resolutions or proceedings of any cor poration, society, association or public meeting, and no communication designed to call attention to any matter of limitod or individual inteiett can bo In narted. unless raid for as an advertisement. No advertisement can bo Inserted gratuitously for I fharitablc or other societies, public institutions or I companies. Contracts for yearly advertising will not be 'Hi continued, unless an order to that effect Is left nt the i office, and when discontinued in less than a yo xttc price of a u-hult yeir will Ir charged,, BfTho Fnrn Purssmay be obtained in California of Charles P. Kimball, Xoisy Cirriers, San Frnnelsco. , FHKK I IC !: S BOOK Sl JO3 PRINTING OFFICE No. 6 College St., Burlington Vt. Books, Pamphlets, Hvmduills, Pho'iuammcs, Circulars, Dlixks, Uilluraks, Caktx, Ac, nxfeutI In both Plain nl Ornamental style, with ntn"t"i, accuracy and promptitude. G. G. BENEDICT. i;y.nnssioNi::t rem tip: state of NEW YORK. f)1ice.''re f ess Tiioms, linr'intnii, I'rrmnvl C. L. BENEDICT. COMMI5M().N'i:' FOU Till: STATU OF VEFIMCNT, IN NEW YORK. OFl'ICE 7U Hull Srut. t,," , it 1 Fll'C 5111(1 MtU'lllC inSUraUCe, 1 .'fiT..lI.SUKAVBS CO., j S.i r n t t i I SUKPLU8 $150,000. Connecticut Inauraneo Co., Or 1UKTFORD, COS-X. CAPITAL $200,000 simi'U's .53.),H0O, .N'OIITII WJ33TKUX I.VSUKAXOU CO. or oswego, x. r. capital $200,000 ; Roger William's Insurance Co., r raoTiDavci!, R. i. capital $100,000. 1 X S U IX A N (J K in naionut not eicooll; 50,1109 dollurr in ono ri.k, Uken tlio ubribur, ai Actt of the nboio Cumpuuir!, at fair and ado qnato rates. LtrB IN3UKAXCU will bo ofToctcd in. lolnt Stock and Mutual InsuraDCo Couipunlci of the first Bland- liarllnston, Vt., Soptember. dtf JOHN B. WHEELER, K A L ESTATE AGES T 13 rECK'll BUILDING, nuni-iNToN. vi if Mil VP. I --'--'' . Particular .tltnttonliTeo to tli. parch... -ad lie of Real Estate, tho Investigation ol Lirnl Titles, Leasing, Collecting Rents, Insuring, Paying Taxes, dc, Ac, Ac. idiwtf Life, Fire and Marine Insurance, O. F. DAVEV, Agent. Offico, North-wost oorner of tbo new Town Hall BUULIXUTO.V, - - - Vt. .May 2Jil. diwly Attorney and Counsellor at I OFFICII O 'i:R COMMERCIAL UA.VA-, IIUKLI.NCTO.V, April 8. 18S3. dtf C. P. DAVEY, ATrOIt.S'EY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW AMD SOLICITOR .Y CIlAXCUllV. rjp Office Xorth-west Curncr of new Town Hall. Uuitineton, - - - - Vermont. May 33d. d.lirly 1B53. THK ISM- DOiN'KH.lX.l HOTE:Bm ffotro Dnrao Street, ?I O M T K K A L Aprils. diwtl New England Typo ST BR EOT Y I ' H VO UNI) K V , KtuUiihui In 1611. IIOH.VICT fc KOBJKINS, XO. 60 COXUItEAS STREET., liOSTO::, -MASs. Eleclrotyping tl Type Copptrfyutl. mur n. nosiRT. josrrn w March 25, IBM. liGSR!15. f.Uly Cavil-i:::Krav;rrir. ORDERS RECEIVED l'OR MAR1UAOE AD dross. Party, and Easiness Coppor-iilate Ea grarod Cards. Thoso who already havo engraved plates of their Cards, can havo theni ntatly printed at short nollco. ?7-Apply at tho UEE l'kE UFFICE, whero Sp'amtni oj vawitu tylt can boccen May iO. d.tntf SPRINGFIELD PillXTMi LR tOjiSMW ) MANUFACTniniS Ul' HOOK AND N I'AVS INK. Of the nEir QUAUiy, and at Lowter I'RiCLts Orders mny bo Addicucdtn f!. Y. llKNnilll'T, At"11- Batllnnton, Tt. " PKOCTOK .V. 'tVOOSS. GENCltAL COMMISSION MKUOll ANTS roil Tilt SALl ol woor. .i.v' cousruv rnnnucr., NO UfiSTATUSTKHI.T i rn.ros, I ItOS'HSN M WOOD, S 'y HEY solicit all kinds .f Hum I try Produce, lor which cash a.liauers r.lll ho rado,andto the alo aud returns of nhlch pruiuit altentluu will be given. REFERENCES. Messrs, Hitchcock, Cobb S Window, I " n. r. Hetcher Co., HUnchard, Converge .1 Co., " V. i F. Rice. Dusro. 11. N.e)mourd riona.0densburg, t. uo a. lluboell, I'otsdani, y. . " Meigs WeaJ, Malonu, N, V. Uoeves X Stevens, Cincinnati, ULio. ' llodoe Jc Owen, HutUnd, Vt. ' II, 11. Sowlfs, K"'j., lit. Alhaiis.Vt. " ShiuucI .Morgan, hsq., Verjennts, Vt, ' 1', V. Lankton, Ascnt, d4wtf Ouukkssiiimb.N. V Mrch SI, HU. dlf HANOINH ! F . J . PARR, r i: a i: u i: it o r u a , ; i ,v (;, llutlillld, ...... Vermont. IS prepared tu furnish IHsck .Mrsic, any uui.t bivrof inui"laiis tu suit tkoueeailuu. MALL-ROOM ilauciujj, lii) lattsl iijrli, taiiilitjin all Us branches. Oct. C. 1851. "tf OKT HI'. Iron iiim rncr. rnnss.J nit: ritosr upo.v tiih window pane. cr nvtr.t m. laud. Like sorao rare and ctwtly jewel Gleaming In tho morning light, KadUnt as Uoloonda's dlomotids Or tho stars of summer night, Traced about in feathery thootings As 'twould wrlto soiuo valued name, Was tho fiost this morningcarly, Shining on tho window pane. All tho children gathered round it Pressing fingcis un Its fice, Striving with the tricks of childhood All Its beauty todefaco ; Hut the Cre burn bright, and brighter And tho room Is warm again While tho frost is softly weeping Tears, upon tho window pane. Ho my brightest, pmest, heart-dreams And tho garnered hopes of years, Like the frost upon tho window, Often have dissolved In tcar Ono by one, each little jewel And each loved and cherished name Vanished, rs tho fro3t has melted Hero ujjuu tho wluduw June. Hut from ueath tho dewy offering brighter, f.ilror hopos wuuld spring, Anl about tho riven heart strings, Greener shoots of ivy cling, hilo the s ul would grow courageous Striking out for wealth and fame, We.ning visions llko tho hot-work On tho frosty window pane. In tho w.itk of life I've witnessed Virtue's mien, as clear and bright As tho fruet is on tho window After a cold wintry night, When ? ?mo daring ice would enter In that huart ami le-iic its statu, Marring It like childish tracings Hero upun the window pane. Hearts may gather strength and stornnes?, Hut they never change to stone, And the thrilling spell of memory will the spiiitown. Oft the hcurt grows col land callous, And may ncvcrmelt again, Till the sunllgbtshlnes upon it As upon tho window pane. XoRTit lUno, Vt. MISUEIjLANF . from tho Uuttand Herald. J It u r u i n R i f t li c P li r u i . Mr. IIatoln: Having boon a passenger mi board uf that ill-fated steamboat, on L.iku Ch.iuiplain, un thu night ul' Sept. dth, 1819 tho night that witnessed its destruction I wish tu place tho history of that disastrous affair in its proper light. Just after tho burn'ng of tho " Phoenix" occurred, n l.ihe stitcineut was made that the heroism of her commander saved tho life of every suul on boird. Igcr of Sojit. btli, 1M19, whicli says, in ;iiins an account of the loss of tho " Phoenix," " Among tboso that pcriihed wero Gilbert i Painter of Quebec, passenger ; Mrs, Wilsun, 1 thu riujierintcndent ul thu Ijidios' Deo.irt ! mont ; Ziba Manning, pilot : Harry ISlash, Stephen Kellis, and Andrew Hiimsun, of tho crew." There was a poor frenchman, I name unkiiOHii, who lay on deck under can I vass. and two oung men frum New Vork, 1 ll.vvu ijuiuit; me mi; .iiuuiuuui , .i.uj'.ii who iero never seen after the disaster thus making a total of nine lust. My only object in making this statLiuent is that no ono ap pears to dispute it. Tho principal causes which led to this ca tastrophe were first Him; secondly the fact of tho buckets' haling been locked up for fear of their being lost by the passengers in their endeavors to procure water. Thus when tho buckets should luuo been full and in a convenient place, not a drop of water could bo procured. I 1 ho follow ing is as brief an account of the i burning of tho ' Phoonix" as I ain able to .lvo ' and it mav not be inirtroner to state - . ..r .-.:. HI .11 III l UU CUUrSU Ol III J. LIM I UL CI lull llll UlU H'"8??0"'"!: it. UUIUIIVH VII ...... -j'M.v uii.....v. stoiesso often bUwecn Burlington and Pitts burgh, that few were so well acquainted with that portion oi mo uiko nciwec n inese two I laces. At that time Port Kent did nut exist; ami tlio ooat-rouio icu near anarp-suiu nnd " Apple-tree" Points, by Inner-Colches-tcr Heel, and then in a dirtct lino to Platts burgh. On tho4th of September, 1S19, I went on board tlio " Pbtrnix" nt liurlington, but did not engage a berth fortho night, although it was 12 o'clock. As I was walking the deck of the boat, which had at tho time pro- ceeded about four miles, 1 caught sight of two of the crew, clinging to the railing in a manner that betokened their having " taken a drop too much." Tho steward happened to come near them a few moments afterwards, and thev held un to his view a black bottle, with the remark that they wanted a pint of rum ; and the steward toot tho Dottle. rot long afterwards, they worked themsches into a disnuto about a light which could then bo seen on the main land. While one insisted I that it was a fire, tho other was confident 1 it was a c.indlo; and they ngrecj at lat to 1 let mo uVcido between them; (it was a fire. I and their being intoxicated alono prevented I t bcin from know in ' it at first.) i Snan tho wind blew rmito strongly, and I walked to the stern of tho vessel. While j hero comcraing wtth Mr. Geo. lliirnham then ' a Custom Iloie officer, Cant, ltichard came I near us and said to my companion "(ieorgo, ' , ,v I l .... l.... 1:1... .1.11 just go forward and eoo IIUI, iiitu IIIU UCI! tho wind blows." In fact, tho gale was so furious as to ciuso tho waies lo rush up as liigli as the bows of tlio Phnix ; but it did not continue lung, and wo went down into tho cabin. In a few minutes, finding myself kit alunc, I went up the stairs, intending to go on deck, but did not bueeecd in attempting to open the door. Then I c.uio back to tho ci'un and laid d-nn on n loni scat, with un clothes still on. While jtt but pirlially asleep, I smelt smoku, but nut thinking it unusual, took no more notico of it, at tho timo. However, after a wbilo, tho smell of rmnko was as strong as ever, and I was about to rise, and ascertain tho cause, when I saw Mr. Allwyn. of Quebec, get out of his berth, with tho samo object. We wont to tho head of the cat 'in stairs, and inquired what the c.iuso was ; a voieo replied " A Jire in ine , icAen." Thero was no tiro to be seen, however ; , noitlier hod tlio cry of " Firo" been raised. I Thiro was eoino smoko rushing through a hatchway on tlio lelt, and which 1 no sooner siw thau 1 called fur buckets ; but could nut procure any ' haia never had tho loast ' doubt that with the titnid v aid of a bucket of water. I could bau eifcctually stopped tho l,re ; tho buckets were Joofccd up, tiecawe , tho passengers might loso tlieui in trying to get water whilo tlio was in motion. jYoi 1 a drop uf water wai usid, ' When I again looked nt tho place from ' which the smoke had proceeded, volumes of ' mingled tiaoko and flame were pouring out ; 1 tbo heated oil in tho engino was soon in a ', Ll un. Then aroeo tho cry " All is lost," and ; tho urdcr was gnen "down with the i l oafs," Tho boats wero lowered, and I saw , several females in tho boat to tho windward ; tho nun ontholccward, when I saw it, ut a distance of twenty feet from the steamboat. It raiuo toviards it ' shortly, and tho lirst passenger and myself ' jumped into it from thedeik Attirst I sup 1 posed one of my legs was broken ; however, I got to tho stern of thu boat, und held it as well us possible to tho steamboat, John Pici sons, of Sl.elburiu:, cut tho hoir-ruie ' when it swung iirouud ; and then there was a iry of" Cut tho stirn-rope, or we shall go iiudTr," and PieiMins cut it oil' close to iny ndj. 1 know that lb" lint was held up to l. " Pliienix" Isjiiif mounh to bo Idled seu- ral tiutes. I positively know that Captain Sherman did not show Uiius If nil dec until both small boats hail I ft for Providence Island. l! 5 (I l,W1 Ono of tho oars uccidently fell Into tho water, nnd in tho attempt to rocovor It, wo came ncrots a person in tho water who proved to bo Judgo Hoyt of Uhatcaugay, and who was thus saicd by a mere accident Our boat went around tho stern of tho burning steam boat, and had tho Captain been up, ho might have got in. Wo wero sixty or seventy rods behind tho other boat, which wo followed. When wo had accomplished tho distance ol about fortv rods from tho " Phoenix" wc saw on tho deck of tho burning boat tho figuro of a man. IIo Btood near tho bow, his arms stretched towards us, nnd making every de monstration of distress lleforo this, John McVein, tlio engineer of the " Phoenix," had given ordeis for all in our boat to keep down us close us possiblo or they would nil bo lost. A Dr. Trout, a surgeon in tho Xavy, when he saw tho man making signsof distress from tho steamboat, roso and said that tho boat could and should return nnd rescuo him. MeVcin told him to sit down for fear of tho boat's being capsiscd, and Dr. Trcvit com plied eiyreluctunlly, however. Hut ho was up again soon, only to bo ordered down ; when ho uus rising tho third time, McVein told him to "sit donn and keep so, or ho would throw him overboard. 1 havo ulwajs believed tho individual thus seen on tho burn ing deck of tlio " Phconix" was Cupt. Sher man. Wo afterwards learned that ho saved himself by floating on something thrown over board. The question ? oon arose among us, whether we should go to Stavo Island or Proiidence. Tho former was tho nearer of tho two. but from my experiencu with this part of tho Lake, 1 gave it us my opinion that tho boat would bo lost on tho rocks, in tho swell, nt Stave Island, ll wo attempted to land thero. So wo steered for Providence Island, and landed safely on the south end. Uol'oro reach ing it, it was suggepted that every ono in the boat should jump out, nt tho precise moment it touched thu shore, that the boat might bo in leadincts to return and pick up those who had been left behind. 1 livid tho boat, while McVein ran sumo distance to the lirst boat's party, to inquire concerning Capt. Sherman, lie returned without haling ascertained that any of them had seen him ; and then started for tho scene of tho sad disaster. Now the fact that nut one among the thirty then on tho Island had seen either the " pistols," ur tlio Captain, proves most conclusively that the author ol tho article which lauded tho " heroism" of the captain of the " Phoenix," was anything but correct in his statements. We tried in vain to make a lire. Xo ono besides myself knew where wo were. Ono incident touched my feelings : Among tho lost was Mr. (lilbert Painter, a brother of Mrs. Allwyn, uf Quebec. I observed her and her husband, sitting on the rocks, apart from tho company She moaned pituouidy from tlio loss of her brother, and her distress was arguiueiited because sho thought the only prospect she had was that of being started on a desolate island. 1 assured her we were about n milo from Grand Isle, tho inhabitants uf which would send down tho next morning, and take us oil'. And I was not wrong, lor we were taken ofl' then, and thoso who be longed to the south went from Grand Ile to liurlington, whero everything was done for tho surviiors, that a feeling and huiuano peoplo could do. ELI AS HALL. lluthnd, Feb. 12, 1853. Tlic Usurpation, of Slavery. Tho speech of Mr. Seward, in tho U. S. Scnato, Pub. 23d, on tho bill for tho protec tion oT United States officers in tho execu tion of tho Fugitive Slavo liw, which wo givo in full to-diy, cannot fail to securo for itself a wide and attentive perusil. It is pronounced the host eflurt of tho great statesman, lie that as it may, it is a speech of iincoiainuii interest and m isterly ability, acd will add to the reputation ol its author a reputation now second to that of no other of tho living actors on tho stage of our na- tional politics. Speech of William II. Seward In the Senate of the United States. Feb. 23, 1835, on the Bill to Protect Officers ol the United States. Mit. 1'remdil.nt : Tho sccno before uio, and all its circumstances and incidents, ad monish mo that tho time has cuino when tho Scnato of tho United States is about to grant another of thoso concessions, which have ho cuno habitual hern, to tho power of Silvery in this Kepublic. tor tho second time, in a period of nearly threo months, the brilliant chandelier nboio our heads is lighted up : tho passages and galleries are densuly crowded ; all tho customary forms of legisla tion uro laid aside, iho multilarious 6UD- ,iects, which havo their rise in nil parts of this extended country, are suddenly lurgoticn in a concentration ot lecling upon a single question of intense interest. Tho day isspent Wlllioui nujtiurniuetii. .jv.-ii.ihhb luituin their natural relaxation and refreshment, re main in their seats until midnight ap proaches. Excitement breaks out in eiery part of tho Chamber. Criminations and re criminations, and denunciations of Senators indiiiduallv. and of Senators bv classes. eouallv ol those who havo participated in tho delute.and of thoso who havo remained client, e-rato harshly upon the ear. ouch as these wero tho incidents that heralded tho jiassago of the Fugitiio Slavo act of 1800. Such us thebe attended tho abrogation of tho Missouri Compromise in 1S54. I know full well that tho fall of Constitutional Liberty is us cer tain to folhw these incidents occurring now, as it follow ud i.i .like incidents on tho sad occasions to which I have refencd. And, for might 1 know, tho teeming gun, which proclaimed thoso former triumphs of Slavery is already planted again under the eaves of 1110 iapnoi, lu cuieuraiu unuiuvi utiuij. Mvcouro. on this occasion, his been thu saino its on all former occasions of a liko character. I liaio Ibrboruo from engaging in the debate, until near the end ut the cuntro versv. tli it the country may know who it i, nnd who it is not, that disturbs tho public harmony, and breaks the public peace, Vry tho imitation of Slavery in th se Halls; and I shall spcaK now, less in tnu lonu ol an nritu mcnL ntramst L no nil neiord us. man oi a pro test, un,n which I shall take my stand, to abido the ultimate judgment which shall hu rendered by tho American people Tor myself thero is a painful association connected witn tlio rio ot tins uonato. i arose in my place nt 1 1 o'clock this morning. simultaneously with tlio honorable- Senator from Connecticut, (Mr. Toucey) and each of Ul UC1U..II.IV.1 II" I ., imiwm " lll.l , uraiuru by tho Cluir to It tin . IIo announced this bill, which, however obacuro in its language, was, ns wo all instantly kuuw, designed lor tho protection ofoflicers of the United States who aro engaged in executing tho Fugitive Slave Iaw. On tho other side, 1 held in my hand a proposition, to he submitted to tho Scnato, for tho erection of a bronze monument, fifty feet high, in the city of Washington, which ehould illustrato tho life and the death of Thomas Jefferson, nod commemorato the im mortal names of thu signers of tho Declara tion of American Independence. Itwaiu pew acknowledgment which I was about to ask fiom tho Senate ot the United States to the great fact on which tho liberties of this country and nil it Constitutions rest that all men aro created equal, Sir, the success which tho honorable Sunatnr from Connecti cut (Mr, I ouccy ) obtained over mo, when tho floor was assigned to him, vras ominous The Sensto uf the United States will erect no monument to tho memory uf JeQ'orsjn, who declared that in tho unequal contest between Slavery and Freedom, the Almighty had no attribute which could take part with tho op pressor. Hut tins Senate will, on the other hand, promptly comply with the demand tu raise ntiotuer uuiwarn around tne institution of slavery. Mr. President, as thero is nothinir nuw in thu circuuirtaiiceH of this transaction, bo it has happened now, as on all similar occasions herotulorcr, that rery thing foreign from the question at isuo has been brought into the debate. The introduction ul these foreign matters has, us heretofore, been attended with u profusion uf reproaches, and calumnies, and epithets, us iuapjiosile to tho occasion as they aro inconsistent with the decorum nnd dignity ofun august Legislnturo. Thoso of us upon whom such denunciations, calum nies and epithets havo boon showered, liava endured them long ; and 1 think no ono will deny that wo havo endured thorn patiently. To such Senators ns have given utterance to their opinions in that form of argument, I mako for myself only this reply that that field of debate is relinguishod exclusively to themselves. Now, us on similar occasions heretofore, tho relations of political parties, nnd their respective, merits and demerits, havo entered largely into tho discussion. Sir, I shall forbear from entering into that part of tho debate, for tho reason that I am addressing, not politicians, hut statesmen. So far as tho justice or expediency oT tlio mcasuro under consideration is concerned, it can mako no differenco whether thoss who udvocifo it or thoso who opposo it aro Whigs or arc Democrats, or belong to that now class of mon who aro popularly called Know Xothings. Arguments based on such grounds may l.ava their weight somewhere els" out sido of tho Chaniher, or possibly up thoro pointing to tho g.illeryj but certainly not down here. Inquisition has been made con cerning tho circumstances and influonccs which uttended tho recent elections of mom. born not only of this House, but of tho House of representatives, for tho purpose, as it seems, of awakening prejudices against thoso who oppose tho passage of this bill. I givo notico to honorable Senators who havo adop ted this lino of argument, that it is neither required by tho peoplo whom I represent here, nor is it consistent with their dignity and honor, that I should assumo to interpret tho niotiies which determined their choico of legislators. Tho results aro before tlio world. They explain themselves. Equally derogatory to any duty, and disrespectful to tlio states men around mo, nnd to the States which they represent, would it be, wero I to inquiro into the manner or circumstances of tho elections niado hy thoso States. I rocognizo every Senator hero as tho exponent of tho opinions and principles of tho State- from which ho comes. And I hear no voico from any State but that tu which its reprcsentatiics givo ut terance. Nevertheless, Mr. President, I shall not shrink from such an exposition of my own opinions nnd sentiments on collateral issues, ns shall tend to disembarrass a good cause, by relieving it from unjust prejudice, directed against myself as its advocate. First, in regard to what is called tho Ne braska Question. I freely confess, that I re gard the abrogation of tho Missouri Compro mise by tho Nebraska bill of tho last session as an unjust, unnecessary, dangerous, nnd revolutionary act. I voted against it as such. Let that vote stand against me, in tho minds and in tho hearts, if it must lie so, of thoso Senators who regard it as a cause fur reproach. CVrttiinlar, tlitn in not tlio tiiuu t'l JUNtlfy vote. A timo to do so was, when the vote given, and its vindication was then duly made. There is probably another timo coin ing for the renewal of that vindication a timo in tho near future, when tho question of a restoration of Freedom throughout tlio Territories of tho United States will ariso in the Senate. Then, if flod shall bless me with continued life, and health and strength, I hope again to do my duty. To that future 'imo I adjourn the argument on tho bill for tho abrogation of tho Missouri Compromise. Thero is moro propriety in tho discussions of tho Fugitive Slavo law, which havo been ro-opened during this debate. I havo no need, nowover, to speatc on that subject. 1 havo fully debated it heretofore, on more occasions than ono, in this placo. Every word of what I thon said, is recorded in tho legislative his tory of tho United States. Thero is not a thought that 1 would wish to add: there is not a word that I am willing to take away. Timo is full surely and quite rapidly enough .w.!ul,i,i tho Question u'hotbj" .!' ,:y right who pronounced tho Fugitive Slavo law a just, and necessary, nnd constitutional act, full of hoaling to a wounded country, or whether tbo humblo individual who now stands before you was right when ho ndino- nislied you that that law was unnecessary, unwise, inhuman, and derogatory from tho Constitution, and that it would never bo ex ecuted without new and continueil usurpa tions. Tho transaction of this night takes place, in order that tho words of that pro. phesy may bo fulfilled. I am not allowed. Sir, to reach tho merits of this question, without alluding to a body of men who sport in tho public gazo under a nanio which I hardly know how to repeat in the presenco ol so grave and reveronu an as anmhlapo as this the Know-Nothings. Thev aro said to have contrived their disguise with so much ingenuity that ono who is not u no vice cannot deny a Knowledgo ot their cer emonies and principles, without implying his communion and membership with them. Nev ertheless, I must reply to the Senator from Illinois, (.Mr. Douglas.) who charges me, among others, with such an affiliation, that I have no knowledge body of men, oth or than what isaflorded me by the publica tions oi tncuay. mm miormcd, 1 under stand the Know-Nothings to bo a 6eeret so- cicty or order, consisting of two or three grades, enlleagucd and mutually sworn to elect individuals ol lin'ir own urder, or ut least persons maiutainine1 tho principles which tint order entertains, to all offices of trust and profit in the United States, Theso principles I understand to bo, in general, tho same which, before tho organization of tho Know-Nothings, passed under the numo of native Americanism. 1 , sir , havo no con nection with that Order 1 am under no re sponsibility for its doings, and I havo not tho least svinnathv with its nrincinles or senti ments. I belong to ono voluntary associa tion of men, which has to do with spiritual ailairs It is the Christian Church that branch of it, all imperfect though I think it is, which, according to my notions, most near ly retains in their purity tho instructions of tho (Jospcl. That association is an open ono, which performs "11 its rites and gives all its instructions with publicity, and invites every man, in the languago of its Divine Founder, to come in and partako of tho privileges with which IIo invested it, and of tho blessings which Hu promises. 1 belong to ono tempo ral society of men, and tli it is tho political party, which, ai-curdiiig to my notions, em bodies most fully an I ui st truly, although I in thu other c.iso, very inadequate ly, tho principles of thu Declaration of Inde pendence and ol tho CoiMtitiitiou of tho Uni. ted States, Thu Association also, of which I have latit spoken, is an upenonc. All its transactions uro conducted in tho broad day light, and it invites all citizens, and all men who boeoruo subjects of tho power of this UiTernnieut, of whatever climo or raco or 1 color they may bo, to enter into its ranks, to pmieiiiato ui'ita labors, ami to co-opcratoin maintaining good Government and in advanc ing the causo of Human Naturo. Thcso two Associations, tho one spiritual and tho other temporal, are the only voluntary Associations to which 1 now belong, or over have belonged since 1 became a uiau ; and, unless I am be reltof reason, thoy are tho only Associations of men to which I shall ever suffer myself to belong. Secret societies, sir ! lloioro I would placo my right hand between the bands of other men, in a secret Lodge, Order, Class or Council, and, bendingon my knoo before thorn enter into combination with them for any ob ject, personal or political, good or bad, 1 would pray to (iud, that that hand and that knee might bo paralyzed, and that I wight be come an object uf tho pity and cten of tho mockery of my fellow-men. Swear, sir' I, a man, an American citizen, a Christian. swear to submit myself to thu guidaoco und direction ol otnor men, surrendering ray own judgment to their judgments, and my own conscience to their keeping! No, no, Sir I know quite well the fallibility of my own judgment, and uiy liability to fall into error, and temptation. Hut my life has been spent in breaking the bonds of tho slavery of other mon. I therefore know too well the danger of confiding power to irresponsible hands, to make myself n willing slave. Proscribe a man, Sir, because he was pot born in the same town, or County or State, or country in which 1 was liorn ' Why, Sir, I do most ear nestly und most affectionately ndiiso all per sons hereafter tu bo horn, that they bo Isirn in tho United States; nnd, if thoy can with, out inconvenienco, to ho Iwrn in the State of Now Vork, und thus moid a groat deal uf trouble for theiuselics and lor others. (Laughter.) Moreover, I do most affection, utcly enjoin upon nil such persons as are hereafter to bo born, that thoy he horn of fathers and of mothers, of grandfathers and grandmothers, of puro American blood. Still more, Sir, I do affectionately onjoin upon all who shall thus havo tho wisdom to como into cxistenco on this side of the Atlantic, and of such puro and untainted ancestry, to bo cither born in tho Protestant faith, or to bo converted as spoodily as possible to that good and truo Protestant Church, within whoso pale I myself am accustomed to wor ship. Moro than that, Sir. Speaking from a full knowledge and conviction of the serious in conveniences which absolute and eternal Slavery entails upon Man and upon races of men, 1 do earnestly, strenuously and affection ately conjuro all peoplo everywhere who nro hereafter to ho born, to no bom whito. Laughter. Thus, being born in this frco and happy country, and being horn whitu, thoy will bo born free. But, Mr. President, this is tho length and this is the breadth of my connection with the new and mysterious Order of Patriots. And, if thero shall here after como among us persons who, becauso fmn ignorance they may not ho ablo to profit hv my advico and counsel, shall bo born in for eign lands ', or, oven if there shall bo any who, indospito of my counsel, shall porsist in be ing Itoman Catholics, or Jows, or Turks, or Chincso : or if thoro shall be othern, who, dis regarding my porsuision, shall insist upon coining Into tlio world with blackened faces and twisted hair, all ( can say in regard to them is, that I havo dono my duty, audi shall not add a foathcr's weight to the disabilities which thoy will incur hy their presumption and porvorseness. Laughter. Sir, my honorahlo friend from Connecticut, Mr. Gillette, has thought this was a good oc casion to invito us to consider the question ol abolishing Slavery in tho District of Colum bia, and has therefore incurred some censure. Uncertainly had a warrant in the latitude which tho debate had already assumed, al though tho subject was not very german to tho question boibro us. I have no hesitation to disclose my fanaticism in that direction. Five years ago, I proposed, in the Congress of tlio united mates, the emancipation ol all tho slaves in the District of Columbia, with the consent of its citizens, to bo expressed through the customary forms of a popular election, and with full compensation, to be paid out of tho public Treasury, to the indi viduals who should suffer damage in their for tunes by so great an act of National human ity and justice. I am ready to go that length now, 1 shall be ready to go thu same length to-morrow next year always. This is enough, I trust, on that subject. I, and others here, Sir, aro donouncod as Abolitionists, in a broader sense, and there fore as traitors. I have no hesitation in con fi.iwins tbo wbolu truth on that point. I believe that I do not know a human being who maintains or supposes that tho liovern mentof'tho UnitedStatcs has lawful authority or right to abolish Slavery in the States of tins union, uert.nniy, in my own opinion, that Government has no such power or right. Hut, Sir, I am a m in, none the less becauso I am a citizen nnd a Senator of tho United States. And. nlthouzh 1 havo no power to oxerciso in a SI iveholding State, I very freely say, that if I wero a member of such a com munity, I should recommend to and urge upon my fellow-citizens there, with patience which could endure until tho necessary reform could safely bo obtained, Rome mcasuro ot traanci nation, imundiato or propoctive, with com pensation lor namages, inrougu tne action oi tne otato legislature, upon too usccrtamu'i consent of tho People. I add, further, to meet tho requirements ot those who snpposo tnat a proposition of Gradual Emancipation to tho slaveholding States is either timely now, or soon will bo so, that while I retain a placo in tho National Councils, any slaveholding Stato ...... ...A.. ...w ll.iu.i.n, .w..v,j . , been already adopted by my own Stato and by other states, snau nave my vote lor any aid, either in lands or money, from tho Federal Government, which the condition of the pub lie Treasury and of tho National domain will allow, in furtherance of an object in which not only tho slaveholding states aro inter cstcd, but which concerns tho whole Union, and even Hum in Naturo itself. Mr. President, I have niado my way, at lust, throuzh tho intricato mazes of this dis cussion, to the actual question before the Senate The bill beforo us is in theso words: " If a suit be commenced or pending in any State Court, against any officer of the Uniied States or other person, for or on account of any act dono under any law ol tne united States, or under color thereof, or for or on ac count of any rizht, authority, claim, or litle, set up by such officer or other person, under any law of tho United States, and the defend ant shall, ut the first term of such StateCourt after the piss.igeot this act, or at the first term ot sucu stato uourt alter sncu sun suau be commenced, file a petition for the removal of .HU eUUJU IV! H l lll.i. tnu ul.., Vll.mi to be held in tho district where the suit is pendin", or, if thero bo no Circuit Court audi district then to the district Court invested with the powers of a Circuit Court next to bo ii. l. i!.!. i..rr.-. I I ....ic ueio m Sam uinrici, aim uu.'r guou uuu sum cient surety fur his entering in such Court on the first day of its session, copies of said process against him, and also for his there ap pearing and entertaining special bail in tne cause, if special bail was originally requi site therein, it shall then bo the duty of the State Court to acoept the surety, a id proceed no further to the cause; and any bail that may have been taken shall be discharged, und the said conies heme: entered as aforesaid in sucu Court of the United States, the cause shall thero proceed in the same manner as if it had been brought there by original process ; and any attachment of tho goods or estate of tha defendant by the original process shall hold th; troods or estate so attached to answer the final judgment, in the same manner us by tho luv-s ul such state tuey wouiu nave neen uoi don to unsvver such final judgment, had it been rendered iiy the Court in wtucn tne suit commenced ; nnd the party removing the causo shall nut bo allowed to plead or give evidence of any other dofenco than that ari- sing under a law of tho United State, as stores lid. " What is proposed hero is an innovation new thing :i thing uuknown in the laws of tho country, since tho State came into a re. Icral Union. Ibis new thing is, that a per son. civilly prosecuted in a state Court, and iutifviue under authority or color of a law ol tne united states, may oust me otnio oi Its jurisdiction, and rcmovo the cause into a Uourt ot tho united states. ino nrst ques tion which arises is. How does thu thin stand now 1 How has it hitherto stood ! What aro the rights of parties in the Stato Courts' Tho Constitution of tho U States binds together in Federal Union thirty ono t.-... r i .1 !.. 1..-.I 3iavcs,'v iiicu,wuiic iiiuy rciuaiu equal uuu qua I i tied sovereignties, at tho same time consti tuto, in tho ucirc'ito, another qualified save roignty. Insomuch as tho chief business of government is to protect the rights of its citizens or subjects, and as the performance oi mat duty is, under uovcrnmcnts, assignea to Courts of Justice, and insomuch ns tho citizen is simultaneously tho subject of a Stato Government and of tho Federal Goern. ment, the State Courts and the United States Courts excrciso concurrently ur co-ordinately the power of trying civil actions which aro in ougui against persons uciing uo ouiocrs ui the Fudcral Government, Tlio public olHcers of the United States uro, as we alt know, nu merous, and of many classes civil, military, nud naval, They aro engaged in executing laws relating to tho army, the navy, tho cus toms, tho public lands, tho Post-Office, the judiciary, and foreign relations. Those agents may bo called upon to aniwur by any Ftrson who ii aggrieved, either in the proper ederal Court or in a Court of tha Bute where the grievance happened. A case which will Illustrate the subject now occurs to wo. Two or threo years ago, I successfully main tainod in tho Supremo Court of tho United States an action on tho case, which had been brought in a Justice's Court of the Stato of New York, by a woman, against a Postmaster, who had refused to deliver to her a now. paier, on which tho postaga which could bo rightfuly demanded was one cent The Post master pleaded before the Justice, and beforo tlio Supremo Court of tho Statu, and before tho Court of Appeals oftho State, that none hut a Federal Court could assumo jurisdic tion in the caso. When his plea was finally overruled in tho Court of last resort in the State, ho appealed from that docision tu the Supreme Court of tho United States. That oourt aihrniod tho decision of the Stato Court nnd thus dofinod the law to bo, that United States uffioers aro amenable to citll actions in the Stato tribunals. Tho law now remains as it was then expounded, and so it has al ways stood since tho establishment of the Constitution itself, it is wise nnd beneficent, becauso it surrounds tho citizen with a doublo safeguard against extortion, oppres sion, nnd every rorm of injustico committed by the nuthorlty or in tho namo of tho great Central Executive Power, Tho second nncstion is, What is tho na turo nnd extent of the chango which you pro poso to mako by tho bill which is under con siderationj Tdiat question is answered In a word. Whenever tlio rights of a citizen nro invadod in any State within tho Union, by a person holding a commission, whether civil or military, from tho President of tho United States, ho shall hencoforth have only a slnglu s.ueguard, instead ot that double panoply which has hitherto shielded him, and In1 must either forego redress or eeek it in a tribunal of tho United States, in which justico is ad ministered hy Judces unpointed by the Pre sident and tho Senate, and irremovable, ex cept on impeachment by tho House, of Rep resentatives, and, therefore, responsible in tho least possible degreo to that wholesome publio opinion which is tho guardian of public liberty. Every postmaster and his deputy, every marshal and his deputy, every inaii-cuuiraciur, ovcry pfcagij-uriver, ucry tide-waiter, every lieutenant, every ensign, and even every midshipman, will bo indepen dent of Stato authority, and, when prosecu ted hcloro a .Magistrato or uourt, in the im mediate vicin.igo where his offenco is com mitted, will dofy tho party aggrieved, and romovo tho action commenced againt him into a Federal tribunal, whoso terms arc rarely held, and then in remote nnd practi cally inaccessible places. One-half of the power residing in the States is thus to no wrested Irom them at a single mow, nnd tncy will henceforth stand shattered monuments of carlior greatness. .o sucu change as tins was anticipated ny the framers of our Federal and Stato Consti tutions. They established the Federal Con stitution chiefly for tho protection of tho whole country against foreign dangers. They gave to it a stronger Executivo than thoy cave to tho States, respectively. Thoy estab lished tlio State Constitutions cruelly lor tlio protection nnd dofenco or personal rights Thoy knew that this Central Government would grow stronger and stronger, and would ii tim.itniv heroine an imperial power, it has realized that expectation, and has become even a Continental i-owcr. iiiinerio, wiu citizen has cnioyed his doublo sileguard Why shall one-half of his panoply be now torn away irom mm lavviuiunu pro- icr ohiect ot tho l cderal liovcriiuient has ailed to be obtained by reison of the exor ciso of jurisdiction by Stato authorities over officers of tho United States! None. Why, then, shall the ancient law nnd custom bo chungod 1 Is there danger that the citizen will bo too secure under the doublo protection of tho Stato Courts and of the Federal Courts' That was not the doctrine of tho earlier days, and that is not sound doctrine now. I demand, in the third place, a reason for this innovation. In reply you urge, first, a precedent. Precedents, in every country, are tho stairway of tyrants. V hat is this precedent! It is a law which protects tho public Treasury, by withdrawing from tho State Courts certain actions against collec tors ot tho revenue. Y ho knows, now, with out moro examination thnn yon nilow timo for us to make, on what ground, or under what circumstanocs, or upon what exigency, that single departure trom tho ancient sys tem was made ! I do not know that I should havo boon in favor of that departure Nor c m ynti show that the innovation thus made, and which you now plead as a precedent, was necessary. W uro ulw... wiser in out judgments in retrospect than in anticipation. I can now see, when the precedent is pleaded to lustily a lurther departuro Irom tho an cient system, abundant reasons to regret that the precedent was ever established. lou tell me, in tno next place, that there is danger ot insubordination danger that tho Statu Government will nullify the laws of the Federal Government. This is always the ready plea for Federal usurpation. It is thu same ground which tho British Government assumed towards British subjects in the American Colonies, when it transported them beyond seas, to bo tried for pretended offences I proclaim in your ears here, and I proclaim beforo my countrymen, that there is no n;ccssity"and no shadow of necessity for this great and fearful change. From every tribunal in an State ol this Union which renders a final judgment that can affect the rights of nny public officer of the United States, there is an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States, reserved to him by the Constitution and laws of tho United States ; and that high tribunal can, merely by its mandate, annul that judgment, und dis charge the party from all its consequences. This, and this alone, was the security which your forefathers established to prevent the evils and dangers of insubordination by the State authorities. I proclaim, further, that when the Constitution of the United States was submitted to the people in the several States, to bo adopted by them, the chief ob jection which was urged against it, tho objec tion wtucn was urged witn tne most zeal, the most energy, and the most effect, was, that the liberties of the citizen would be brought into jeopardy by tho extended power of tho Federal Judiciary. So stronuously was this objection urged, that the Constitution was not adopted until it was demonstrated, by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison, in tho Feder alist, that the Stato jurisdiction, which you arc now about to strike down, was lelt to the States, and could never bo wrested from them without an act of Congress, which there was no reason to presume would over be passed. Sir, this is an important transaction. I warn you that it is a transaction too impor tant to bo suddenly projected, and carried out with unusual and unseemly rapidity. It is a transaction that will bo reiicwcd freely, bold, ly, and through long years to come. You would have dono well to have given us a week, or a day, or at least one hour, to prepare our selves with arguments to dissuade you from your purpose and to stay your hands. Suffer mo to say, with all deference, that you would havo dono well if you had allowed yourselies time to consider more deliberately tho neces sity for a measure so bold, and the consequen ces which must follow it. I repeat. Sir, that there is no necessity for this act. In every case which is intended to be reachod by it, the mandate of tho Supremo touri oi mo uaneu aiaica annuls uiu juujj. ment of the Stato Court which has mistaken its own powers, or encroached upon tho red oral authority; and the Stato itself, with all Its dignity and prido, falls humbledand abas ed at the Toot of central and imperial power. I habitually contemplato everything connec. ted with tho dovelopomont of tho resouices and with tho cxtonsion and aggrandizement and glory of this my"country, with an enthu siasm which 1 am euro I do not always find burning in the hearts of all with whom it is my duty to act in her Councils. Hut, Sir, I i shudder when I think that this doveloperaent, mis extension, tnis aggranuizeuieni. auu hub accumulation of glory, aro going on firmly, steadily, and crushingly, at tho expense of these noblo, independent Stutes ; that tho majestic dome, while it spreads itself more widely and ereots itself higher and higher, is pressing into crumbling fragments the pillars which constitute its truo and just support. Sir, we havo had, on this occasion, as wo always have on painful occasions of this kind, pathetic ollusions to'the lafetyof this Fede ral Union. And theso allusions havo been addressed to mo, although ( havo hitherto been content to bo a eilent liitoncr to this debate What do you think must bo tho feelings of a man, himself a Representative of threo millions, one-eighth of your wholo people a Representative of one-sixth of all the freemen in the Republic a Ucnresenta tivo of even a larger proportion of tno whole wealth of tho country a Koprosentatue of your wholo concentratod Commerce whon ho finds himself surrounded by men who think that a community so numerous and so intelli gent, and enjoying such wealth and cherish ing such interests, aroeo far habitually blind ed by passion as to bo disloyal to tho Union on which all their safety depends 1 Sir, 1 al- most forgot my customary toleration, when 1 sen around me"men who know how the inter- ests and affections of theirnwn homes cluster nnd entwine themselves with every fibre of their own hearts, and who vet seem to fnrgpf that thoe interests and nffecllnns are tho off spring of humanity itself, nnd therefore com mon to nil men, nnd suppose that it is trca. son against tho country to protest against tho oppression of any ono of its many nnd vari ous manses and races. I warn von. Senators, that vou are saving this Union nt a fearful cost. This is a He. publican Government tho first nnd only one that has ever been widely nnd nernnncntlv successful, Everyman in this country, every man in Christendom, who knows nnvthing of the philosophy of Government, knows that this Republic has h-iin thus succcsstul. only by reason of tlm stability, streneth nnd creat- ness, of the individual Sintes. Vou aro sav ing tho union of those States, hy sippine nnd underminini the columns on" which it rests, ion reply to nil this, that thcrn iH nowdy developed necessity for this not of Fed eral atrgrindizement. TIitc is no such new necessity whatever. Tho Courts of tho seve rnl States havo exercised their concurrent ju risdiction over officers nnd ngents of the United tate for a period of ixty years, in cass which involved life, liberty, property, crimmercoi p"ace, nnd war. subject to super vipinn by the supreme trihunalmf tho Union, nnd while individual rights have been main tained, the public poice lias been everywhere preserved, and the public saTety has never re ceived a wound. During all thnt time, there has never been an agent or npolngit of th" Federal power, so npprehenivo for the pub lic safety as to propose tho mcasuro which is now beforo us. There has never been a time when such a proposition would have been re ceived with favor. There have indeed been discontents, but they havo been loeit and transient. Such discontents nro incident to free society everywhere, nnd they are inevita ble here. It is though tbo working of such discontents that free communities, acting hy constitutional means, and within constitu tional restraints, work out the reformation of errors, tho correction of ahnses, and the advancement of society. All that has Imp pened is a change of the scene of thcso discon tents, resulting from a chnnzo in the gen- graphical direction wnich the action of the Federal Government takes. Heretofore the murmurs nf discontent caino from the South. Now, the hreezo which bears them sets in from the North. When the wind blew from a hiuthern quarter, tho riirhts of tho citizen wore not safe without tho interposition of the Stato tribunals. Now, when it comes from an opposite point of the compass, u Senitor Irom Connecticut (Mr. loucey) requires Congress to prohibit that interposition, and to arm the Federal Government with new and portentous power. Mr. President, nil this, trouble arises out oftho fugitive Slave Liw. Tho transition in which we are engaged is by no means the first act of a new drama. You becan here, in 171)3, to ovtend into tho Freo States, bv tho exercise of tho Federal power, tho war of races tho war of the master asiinst the slave. Tho Fugitiio Slavo Law which was then passed became obsolete. '1 hough no great inconvenience was sustained, the pride of the slave-holding power was wounded. In l(oO you passed a now 1 ugitivo SI lie Law, and connected it with measures designed to extend tho territorial jurisdiction of the United States over new regions without in hibiting Slavery. You were told at that time, ns distinctly as you are told to-night, that your new law could not be c-ecuted and would become obs.oleto for the same reasons that the old law had become obsolete that the failure of tho uld law bad resulted, nut from its want of stringency, but from its too great stringency. You wero toll then, us distinctly us you are now told, that your new law, with all its terrors, would fail, because, liko tlio old l.w, und mora than tho old law, it lacked the elements to command tho con sent and approval of the consciences, the sym pathies nnd tho judgments of a frco people. Tho new law, however, was adopted in de fencool our protest, that it was an act of Federal usurpation, that it virtually suspend ed thowrit of hahcas corpus that it unconsti tutionally denied a trial by jury, and that it virtually commanded a judgement Si ivory to be summ irily rendered upon ex parte eviiienco, which tne party accuscu was not allowed to refuse, in the due and ordinary courso of the common law. You adopted new and oppressive penalties in answer to nil theso remonstrances . and, under threats and alarms for the safety of the Union, the Fugi tive Slave bill received tho sanction of tho United States, and becamo a law. That was tho second net. When murmurs and loud complaints urose, and remonstrances came in from every side, you resorted to an old and much abused expedient. You brought all tho great parties in the United States intoa coalition nnd league to maintain this law, nnd cv.ery word and letter of it, unimpaired, and to perpetuate it forever, All your other laws, although they might be beneficent, and protective of human rights und of human liberty, could bo changed, but this one unconstitutional law, so derogatory from the rights uf human naturo, was singled out from auiong all tho rest, and was tu be, like the laws of tho ,.Mcdos and Persians, a decree forever. This was tho third act. And where nro you now ! It is only five years since the Fugi tive Slave law was passed. You havo poured out treasure liko water to secure its execution. The public police, the revenuo service, the army and tho navy, have been at your com mand, and havo ali b;en vigorously employed, to aid in enforcing it. And still tho Fugftivo Slave Law is not executed, and is becoming obsolete. Youdcminda further and a moro stringent law. The Federal Government must be armed with new powers, subversive of public liberty, to enforce the obnoxious . i . i.?ii u . e i .i. statue, ino inn oeiuru us supplies inoso new powers. This is tho fourth act. It is easy to be seen that it cannot be tbo final one. Sir, I look with sorrow, hut with no anxiety, upon thesi things They will have their end beforo lung in complete discomfiture 1 abide the time, und wait fur tho event. I perform my duty, tho only duty which re maius for mo now, in rotesting against tho enactment of this law, and in expressing to you my conviction that you nro traveling altogether in tho wrong direction. If jou wish to secure respect to tho Federal author ities, to cultivate harmony between the States, to securo universal poaco, and to crcato new bonds uf perpetual uuion, there is only one way beforo you. Instead of adding new penalties, employing new agencies, and inspiring now terrors, you must (jo hack to tho point whero your mistaken policy began, and conform your Federal laws to Magna ! Ciiarta, to tho CoNsiircnoN, und to the Rights or Man. Cool, Cooler, Cooi.vst. Tho other day a loconiotive.on tho Erio and Cleveland road, broke a wheel just as it was running upon tho Conneaut bridge, in consequence of which it was, together with several freight cars, precipitated off tho bridge, a distanco of somo forty feot, to tho valley below. In ono oftho cars was a man who is, by all odds, tho coolest chap out. With hiui ho had a horse, and twonty-fivo sheep. When the ac cident took place, tho car ahead went off first, and then tho ono ho, and his horse and sheep were in, piled itself on top, scattering man, horse, sheep, and tho fragments of tho de molished car, rather promiscuously over tho the ground. Gathering himself up uninjuf d, lio coolly surveyed tho heap ot ruini for an instant, and thou, with that peculiar nasal twang which proclaims tho truo Yan kee, he broke forth with : ' What the d 1 yo all about hero ; why, I swow, I would'nt been so ncart for fivo silver dollars." Just then he spied ono of his sheep' and the only ono hurt, with a horn knocked off, and he continued his complaint with increased warmth, ' Thoro's my best ram with one of its horns knocked all to flinders ; why, I would'nt had that dono for twenty shillings. Then mounting his horse, nnd gathering up his sheep, ho drove them up tlio lull, got ins dinner nt a neighboring house and departed, no douht cursing his luck, and bemoaniug his lost horn. If any body can produce a cooler man than this, wo want ttcm to bring him on, Erie Observer, AGHTCULTUIIAL. Whnt Is Practlcnl Tnrmlns, The ashes of plants aro railed innrennie matter. Though apparently homosenoons these nshes havo certnin distinctive features which nro important to the farmer. Tho same plant, without reference to the soil on which it grows, always yields an nsh of about tnesamo composition. uiuereni classes ot plants yield different kinds of ashes. Inor ganic or nshy mittor is obtained by plants only irom tno sou. it is ot a mineral ciar actor, and never exists naturaly in the at mosphere, irom thee facts wo eo that the soil, in order to produeo perfect plants, must contain the matter necessiry to form their ashes, whilo thcso being different in the va rious crops, tho oil mav be fertile for ono crop and not for others, because tbo propor tions ot its inorianie mUemls may he such that it can furnish fool Tor tbo nshes of but tho one kind of plant. Other soils aentn nro fertile for nil plants, and ifw examine theso by chemical analysis, we shall find tint they contain all that is necessary for forming tho ashes of all plants. Tho first fact that strikes ns in studying tho composition of vegetable ashes is that they consist of tho samo substances in nil plants, tbo differences consisting only in their relitivc proportions to each other. These substances nro called potish. lime. magnesia, phosphoric acid, sulphuric arid, chlorine, (a constituent of common silt.) silica, (tho base of sand.) oxide of iron, (or iron rust,) nnd in somo plants, oxide nfmm- gancse. These constituents, except the last named, exist in all of our cultivated plmts, tho proportions varying with the kind of plant. For instance, the ashes or wheat and other seeds contain largo proportions of phosphoric ncid, tho l otato yields much potash, clover possesses largo quantifies of lime, etc. Tho relitions between the soil and its natural productions seem to be invari able, and we observe in practice that, other things being equal, a soil in which phospho ric acid largely predominates. Is best for wheat, rye. corn.&e. An excess of potash fits the soil fur potatoes, Lime induces a growth of clov;r or other plants having ash es of a 61 mil ir composition. Tho sune principle explains nnnther ap parent peculi irily of rutiration. It is often observed that soils which are fertile for ono crop relusc to produce it after a year's cul tivation, though they will produce somo other crops in abundance. Tho renson fur this is, that tho constant production of ono kind of plant robs the soil chiefly of one or two ingredients, until they aro too much ro duccd in proportion to afford proper iusten ance to plants requiring them so largely ; though it in iv still contain other ingredients in sufficient quantity to sustain another class of plants. Thus, successive cropsof wheat roo the soil of its phosphoric ncid, while they re quire its potnsh in less quantities. Supposing the two constituents to havo existed in cquai proportions at first, at tho end of five years of wheat-growing there would bo remaining in tlio soil moro of potash than of phosphoric acid, and it would bo better fitted fur the crovvth of potatoes then for that of wheat. On this principle is foundelthe rotitiun of crops, which consists in cultivating say threo or five kinds of crops in yearly succession, thus so varying the demands on tho soil that it suplies the xarions kinds of inorganic mat ter in about tho same proportions, nnd is left at tlio end oftho rotation in proper balance that is, having no constituent l.irgly predom inating over tho others. Whilo on this subject we may mention a very plausible the ory on tho subject of weeds. It is tho na tural tendency of soils to produce spontan cneous growths of plants, tne composition of whoso ashes corresponds with their own. Many of the moro noxious weeds differ great ly in their inorganic parts from crops which vvu wish to cutivuto, nnd when tho ash oftho weed corresponds more closely with tho soil than does that of our crop, the weed has tho best chance of success, and unless closely watched will crowd it out. It is reasonably supposed that if we so improvo tho character of the soil as to render it moro congeniil for the crop and less so for the weed, we mny pur 6uo our oper.itiuns with better hupo of suc cess. This is a matter which may be easily brought into practice, and which must greatly advance tho interests of tho cultivator. Tho compositions of the various kinds of tho veg etable ashes have been often published in ta bles of analysis hy the as.-istanco of which wo may know tho ex ict requirements of our crops anl may fit our soils for their reception. Tho farmer should always bear in mind this law of nature, viz : The various classes of plants hare ashes of different compositions, and no crup can come to ptrfcction without the matters necessary to form the ashes peculiar to it Y. Y. Eve. Post. How to Know tiik Ace or a Horse. Tha colt is born with twelve grinders. When four front teeth have made their apppearaiice, tho colt is twelve day old ; and when the next four como forth, it is four weeks old. When tho corner teeth appear, tho colt is eight months, nnd when the latter haveattained to the height of tho front teeth it is one year old. The two year old colt has the kernel (the dark substance in the middle of tho tooth's crown) ground out of all the front teeth. In the third year tho middle front teeth are being shifted, and when three years old theso aro substituted hy the horso teeth. The next four teeth are shifted in the fourth year, and the corner in the fifth. At six years tho kernel is worn out of the lower middlo front teeth, and the bridle teeth havo now attained to their full growth. At soven years a hook has been formed on the corner teeth of the upper jaw ; the kernel is worn out of all the lower front teeth, and begins to decrease in tho middle upper fronts. In tho ninth year, tho kernel has wholly disappeared from the upper middle front teeth, tho hook on the corner has increased in size, and tho bridle teeth loso their points. In the tenth year the kernel is worn out of teeth next to the middle fronts of the upper jaw; and in the eleventh tho kernel has entirely vanished from the corner teeth of the samo jaw. At twelve years old, tho crown of all the front teeth in the lower jiw has become triangular, and tho bridle teeth are much worn down. As tho horso advances in age the gums shrink away from tho teeth, which, consequently, rcccivo a long, narrow appearance, and their kernels have become metamorphosed into a darkish point, grey hairs increase in the fore- ncaa, over tno eyes, aua too cnia assumes iub form of an angle. (C Railww Uefresiiiiems. Railroad travellers will appreciate the following rhap. sody of a correspondent of tho Cincinnati Times, over a good refreshment table. The bakod beans in particular appear to have "tcched" him "Usually, pics of a doubtful character, about as easy to digest as lumps of clay, cake, rancid and stalo, dried up tarts, odds and ends of mcits, centenarian fowls, half-cooked plaster of paris bread, stewed coffee, and ar ticles of a like stamp, coniposo tho edibles set beforo tho hungry traveler, who has fif teen or twenty miuutes to refresh himself. But at Springfield was a model table, amply furnished with well-cooked and palatablo food, including delicious oysters in every style. But what attracted my undivided at tcntion, was a mammoth platter of bakod pork and boans, with plenty of ryo and In dian bread.' My aopctito rallied instantcr, and with a mental blessing (nattily aaid) on the man who bad scneo to provido uch wholeeomo, simple, and never to bo discarded articles, I inado the first good dinner for seve ral days. Long live tha proprietor of that wayside inn. May his courso over tho rail, way of lifo be froo and unobstructed, and when, at last, ho is "switched off" into Eter nity, may tho prayers of grateful travellers bonis, and over his final resting place let a monument bo raised, with this inscription' "Hero lies a man, who in his lifetime kept a railway refreshment tablo, ana naa tno goou onto always to provido it with healthy and pafatablo food 1 Sic transit, Ac, .to. And Ict tho top of this monuincnt bo ornamented with a pot of baked beans, chiseled from Italian marble. Ho deserves all tho gratt tude we can give." D

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