Newspaper of The New York Herald, February 1, 1861, Page 4

Newspaper of The New York Herald dated February 1, 1861 Page 4
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NEW YORK HERALD. JIIII GORDON BENNBTT, kditur and pbopkiktok. OPriCI N. W. CO EM KB OF FITLTOM AND NASSAU HTS. flUU^wttKklMM bymaU wil' Ualth* rtSTaf \kt?ml*r. Kmu but Uttnk bilU eurrmU U iurk iiAiw, TBW PA 1L r BBBA in. f*o <* ult ver ?W, $7 J** annum. TBK WEEKLT IlKJiALD, <**iy SnturAny, at tit mis per nm<t, or f J }f ?<???; (*<? Kurojf'? Bdtotm rrrry Wednttmy, attil crnU t*r ow 9* P*r <*??""" I" nHk j>or< V OrnU Hrtlnn, arts to iniii < / (Ac nmtinrt.1, b4k to inrlvU jiuM-ii/*; U> t Col\/"" 1.1 t.htiim im I At 1st, IWA and iU c/ ?urA mtmi/i, K ?v? cc*i'. tirr r,-*-v. or $1 Ml lirt UMWN. rxw FA Mil T UKHALI), on Wednesday, at four cent* per copy, or $1 prr annum. JOU I'KIA TLHQ txervted vith cheaimm avl dt~ tpatch. Volume XXVI No. 31 AMU8EMENT8 THIS EVENING NIBLO'S GARDEN, Broadway.?Richki.ifo. WINTER GARDEN, Broadway. opposite Bond A Nkw W*r to 1'a* Old Dkiits?Kathkrin* and Pi. truck io. r WALLACE'S THEATRE, Broadway?Ta? Ladt or 8t. Tmopct LAt'RA SKENE'S THEATRE, No. 624 Broidway ? B*TAK ftlSTAKS. new BOWERY TIIB4TKK, U >w*ry.?A Pkp Ri iiino thk Sinn's?Vabiktt?Nkw York As Ir Is?Clubs 4Rk Tm:?p. THBATRR TRANCAIS, Mi Broadway.?Lm Cahotiem DM LA BkIM?. BARM M S AMERICAN MUSEUM, Broadway.?Day and Evening- Sbilm i>n Tkaks?Tuk Laby or St. Tuurtz? Litixq C'uBiosinsi. Ac. BRTANTS' MINSTRELS, Mechanics* Hall, 4Ti way.?lit iiij -yi ks, SoKiiK, Damcks, Ao.?MAjyuw Ball. HOOLBY & CAMPBELL S MINSTRELS, NH>1o'h Saloon, Brcmdv.ay.?Ethiopian Somjs, Dakck.i, BuKLfc.s^cm, Ac ? BkTOEVCD CALirORXtA**. CANTERBURY MUSIC HALL, 6fi.1 Broad way.?Tigut Bore. Bonus, Damck*. Bckik?quks, Ac. MBLODFON, No. SJ9 Broadway.?Bocc?, Dawiks, Bo? issuci?, Ac. ART I NION, No. 4'J7 Broadway.?BORLBSqUKS, SoXui, Dancis, Ac. CONCERT HALL, Newark.?Ben worth A C *mphki.l's Woon's Mikstrkls?BosLRsaua o* Rakrt. Kr? Yorit, Friday, Frbronry 1, 1801. HAILS FOE THE PACIFIC. Hew York HeraldsCalifornia Rditlon. The mail Rtt-ampbip Ariel, Ciplain Mmnr, will loavo thin port lo-day, at noon, fur Aspiuwall. The mails for (Vlifornia and otli^r parts of tho Pactflc will close at trn o'clock this morning. The Nkw York Wkkki.t FIkralo?California edition? containing: the latest intelliffenco from all parts of the world, with a Lirgo quantity of local and miHCoUanoud matter, will bo publishod at nine o'clock in the morning. Singlo copies, In wrappers, ready for mailing, six routs. Aporitswll pleaso sond in thoir orders as early as pos tible. The Hfwi. The proceedings of Congress yesterday are highly important. In the Senate Mr. Seward, in ptcsent;ng the monster memorial of the citizens of New York, in favor of the adoption of tho border State adjustment of the troubles of the nation, de livered a ldng speech in exposition of his views and policy. A full report of it is given elsewhere in our columns'. Mr. ^lason, of Virginia, in his comment* u]>on the speech of Mr. Seward, thus pithily rums up the argument of the latter:?" He has recommended, first, to speak : next, to vote ; next to give money; and, lastly, to light.'' Tliede bate commenced by Mr. Seward was participated in by Senators on 1 oth sides, and the impression gathered from the speeches is, that the incoming administration has resolved upon pursuing a coer cive cour.-c towards the seceding States should all efforts for a peaceful settlement fail. In the House Mr. Adams, of Massachusetts, the author of the proposition to admit New Mexico into the Union, with or without slavery, as her people may elect, delivered his views oh the crisis, a?< did also Mr. Farnsworth, of Illinois; Avery, of Tennessee; Niblaik ol Indiana, and others. The Democratic State Convention assembled at Albany yesterday. Soon after the commencement of the proceedings the struggle between Tammany and Mozart was begun. There was much partisan feelii.R manifested by the friends of the rival factions, and considerable excitcmcnt, at one time portentous of a row. which, however, was avcited. The Com eution finally voted to ad mit bo'h the Tammany and Mozart delegates. With this, however, the Tammanyitcs were dissatisli' <1 and withdrew. ILey subsequently met at the Delavan House and organized, when, on taking a \ote, they decided not to return to the Convention. They declare uncompromising hos tility and war to the knife again^ the Regency. The Mozarters were very much elated at their recognition. Hon. Amusa J. Parker was elected President of the Convention, with a long list of Vice Presidents and Secretaries. The resolutions from the committee will be reported to the Con vention to-day. The joint special committee of the Legislature of this state appointed to con>idcr the proposi tions of the Virginia Legislature, in refereucc to sending delegates to a Convention of States, pro poped to be convened at Washington on Monday next, the 4th inst., to concert meaenrea of conciliation between the North and South, yester day rendered the result of their labors In a ma jority and a minority report. Tho majority re port, while expressing dissent from the plan of compromise suggested by the Virginia Legisla ture, accedes to the proposal of sending Commis sioners from this P ate. and r.ames David Dudley Field, William Curtis X<?ye?, James 8. Wadsworth, .lames ('?? Smith, Amaziah P. James, Greene ('* ltronsoii, Eiastus Corning, Addison Gardiner and William E. Dodge as such commission. The minority report is adverse to the sending of Commissioners. The consideration of the report was made the special order for to day in the Assembly. Considerable of other business was gone through with in both houses of the Legislature, but principally of local interest only. The mails by the ?teamship Bohemian, which arrived at Portland Wednesday morning, reached this city last evening. The main points of the news by this arrival have already been given, but the details, which we publish this morning; arc of some Importance, both in a political aud financial point of view. The cotton panic in England Joes not seem to abate. The London Time* of the 16th contains an elaborate article upon the subjcct of the cotton aupply, which we reproduce this morning. Joseph P. Sweet, who was arrested a few weeks ago on a charge of being a fugitive from Indiana, it being alleged that he was connected with the Boob County Bank swindle, was rearrested yes terday by detective McCord, on a warrant issued by the Governor of Indiana, the Grand Jnry of Boon county having indicted him aa being impli cated iu the same matter. The Police Commissioners yesterday made fonr* teen appointments of patrolmen, as folloira:? Thomas Stokes, John N. Brown, Owen Gallagher, John II. Mann, Joseph Hook, John Porter, Rich ard Blake, Thomas Rightman, Edward Burna, ? Samuel F. Kelsey, Henry Potter, Francis Murphy! for the New York force; and Lewis I^wis, p. k! Larquier, of the Brooklyn force, dismissed, offi cer F. P. Wright, of the Fourth precinct, wn pro moted to Sergeantcy. At the meeting of the Board of Aldermen yes terday, 1ft. Dayton offered a resolution providing for the appointment of a joiat select committee of the Common Council to Invite Mr. Lincoln, the Prwrident elect, to visit New York and accept the ?? cordial welcome"' of its citizen* on his way to tho national capital. A brief but lively dlsoussion OMOed, and on taking a rote the proposition wm rejecfod. The fourth aiinual Import of t!ie Cen tral I'ark ( nimni.sxion wan presented. The expen diturea cf the Commission no far, for land and im provements, amount to $<>,<147,901. During the paat year 3,570 laborer* have been employed in the I'uik. The expenditure* during the Maine period have been $114,000. Considerable routine business wax transacted, and the Board adjourned to Monday next. The (Irand Jury made a presentment yesterday in the Court of General Hest-ions previous to being discharged, which will be found in our report elsewhere, After stating that the number of in cendiary fli es are increasing, they denounce the seditious doctrines set forth in the recent message of M.iyor Wood, observing that such sentiments pander to the worst passions of men, and, in con clusion, urge the importance pf having an efficient police to suppreas crime ?nd protect our citizens. Jacob Miller, who was convicted on Wednesday of arson in the second degree, was sentenced by Judge McCnnn to imprisonment in the State prison for twelve years and three months. In the absence of the President of the Board of t ouncilmen, the Clerk called the meeting to order last evening. Nine members only answering to their names, lie declared the Board adjourned till Monday. The majority of the democrats are in Albany saving the Union. The Commissioners of Charities and Correction met yesterday afternoon, and adopted the report of the Committee of the Whole in the usual way. An abstract of this report is given in another column. There are 9,030 inmates in the institu tions at present, which is an increase of 117 for the past week, The skating in the Central Park yesterday seem ed to have obtained renewed vlg->r from its tem porary lull, and although the ice was not altoge ther smooth, still, as the season is now rapidly approaching its end, the ball was raised, and the l?ond illuminated at night. The official returns of yesterday, to Bix P. M., gave pedestrians, 50,000: equestrians, CO; wheeled vehicles, 000, and sleighs 1,300. At the close of the Park the numbers were, pedestrians, f.0,000; vehicles, 700; sleighs, 1 1,600. The Drive was in a fair condition for sleigh ing, considering there has been no fresh fall of I snow. Robert Wilson, a sleigh driver, v. as arrest ed yesterday for disorderly conduct. In conse quence of so many accidents, chairs will in future be prohibited on the ludies' pond. The whole pond is expected to be flooded to-night; if so, there will be no skating after six o'clock P. M. The overland pony express, with Ban Fran cisco advices to the 12th ult., arrived at Fort Kearney on Wednesday, four days behind time. The Cortez sailed from San Francisco on the 10th for Panama, with a fair complement of passen gers and nearly a million and a half in treasuro for New York. Business, as usual at this season ofthe year, was very dull. A. L. Stookfleth, the Hamburg consul, and a merchant of extensive connections, committed suicide on the 10th ult. He was heavily involved pecuniarily. Two matches were played yesterday on the curling pond in the Central Park, one for the local medal of the Thistle Club, the other merely f?.-r honor, between the Hudson and Caledonian clubs. A report will be found in another column, giving the winners in both matchcs, Ac. We have advices from Porto Cabello, Venezuela, to the 8th ult. The country continued in a very resettled condition, both in foreign and domestic affaire. The accounts from the United States had a most prralyzing effect. The French and Eng lish Ambassadors and subjects assumed tones and onntseo'iencca heretofore not practiced towards the natives. The cotton market yesterday was without change of moment in i rices, wnile the sales embraced about 2 300 bales, part In transit. We quote middling uplands at 12'4c. The expectation entertained by some persons 'bat any very large proportion of the cotton crop can be brought inland by river and rails for reshipment to Europe is, to a grtat extent, delusive. It is a bulky article, and every time it is handled it costs money. From Memphis to shipboard In New York it has tj be bundled five or six times; wher.'as, by way of New Or eaus, it is not neseesarily handled more than tvro or three times. Resides, In New Orleans it, to a large ox teut, undergoes powerful recompression to lesseu its bulk. To deliver the whole crop to Northern cities for re-export (say four millions of hairs) would tax the utmcst capacity of the railways forming the lmks in ti e meet direct routes of transportation for a period of one or two years. The only point from which inland transpo; tat ion has been carried on to any considerable extent during the isst few years to the North has been from Memphis, which Is 7C0 miles above New Orleans The whole recc pts at this place iu 1959-fl0 were uot n.n h ever IXO.OCO bales, a pirt or which found its wiy toNoitliero manufactures through inland rout s. The remainder was forwarded to New Orleans, and some p>r [ lion to Charleston. A considerable portion of the re ceipt at Memphis comes from Arkansas The cotton received here does not rank o high as that grown nearer the Gulf. The groat advantage of the New ? ?rl' Rns market arises not only from the quantity, but the wide rai ge of qualities on sale. Hence foreign pur ahasers, and especially those from France, can m.ike better selections than elsewhere. The supplies from Natchez. Grand Guir, Rod River and Texas aiT>rd the best assortment of line cottons found on the conti cent. .Among other varieties, Pea Island is found in the market from the coast of Texas and Florida. The fl mr market exhibited no important change in prices, which were dull for the upper grades, while sales were fair. Wheat was more active, and quotations without altera tion of moment. Com opened dull and heavy, but was more buoyant at the close and at unchanged prices. I'ork wu.- rather tli m< r, with light sales. Sugars were tolerably active, with sales of 1,400 hhds. and 170 boxes, at rates given in another column. O>ffeo was steady. Freights were rather easier for grain and Ormer for flour. There was nore freight offering for Havre. The Pacific Railroad Job,?This stupendous lobby scheme has passed the Senate of the United States in an amended form, providing for no lees than three railways across the vast deeertfl and Bterile mountains lying between the Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean?a Northern, a Central and a Southern road. This bill pawed by a vote of thirty-seven to fourteen, und goes back to the House, as amended, for the concurrencc of that body. The probabilities, too, nre all in favor of its success; so that, perhaps, the only remaining hope for the defeat of this enormous scheme of spoliation and corruption is in the President's veto. Considering, however, the emptiness of the Treasury, and th<? more imperative necessi ties of the crisis than Pacific railroads, we rely, in this case, upon the quietus of a veto. Disabilities of Ai.ncxs.?We seo that a bill has been introduced in the Legislature by Mr. Fulleiton to enable resident aliens to hold and convey real estate. There has scarcely been a session within our memory that a simi lar effort has not been made and failed. It is time that an end should be put to legal restric tions which have neither common sense nor policy to recommend them. The purchase of property in the State by aliens contributes to its wealth, and no rational argument can be urged against their being allowed this privi lege. When the European governments are taking steps to discontinue the passport sys tem, we should remove from our statute books these equally unwise restrictions on foreigners. Other States of the Union have not hesitated to do so. and we have yet to learn that any practical Inconvenience has resulted from it. Gittinu Amino as Wkix as CocLd bk Ei PICTXd.?The Democratic State Convention at Albany, composed of disorganizing politicians, who, having failed to save themselves, hare as sembled to save the Union. The Prrt Confrdcrary of Cite north* We publish three articles from the Toronto papers on the great question of a Northern confederation, embracing the free communities of the late United States, the two Canadas an i all the British provinces of North America. The question arises from the determination of all the republican leaders to resiBt those mea sures which can alone reconcile the South to the North, their object being to prevent the weeding States from returning to the Union, and to force the rest of the slave States out of it. This is done advisedly, with a view of an nexing the British colonies, wfeieh would have nothing to do with the confederacy so long as slavery was tolerated within its borders, but which, with that insuperable objection re moved, will be glad to unite their destiny with their Anglo-Saxon brothers in a great free soil homogeneous nation, extending from the Ohio to the North Pole. "For every State that goes out one must come in," says Mr. Seward; "and so I look upon Rupert's Land and Canada, and I am able to say 'It is very well; you are building excellent States to be hereafter admitted into the American Union.'" Mr. Lincoln and Mr. Sew ard have both declared that this government cannot exist with two kinds of civilization; that it cannot continue half slave and half free; it must be all either one thing or the other. As the Southern States decline to surrender their institution, and prefer to cut adrift rather than submit to Northern domination, there is nothing left but to repair the loss by the annexation oi the free States lying to the north of us. It has been said that the Prince of Wales was well received throughout the British Provinces, and that therefore they will not join us. That is a weak and flimsy argument; for his Royal Highness was received with greater eclat on this side the line. The disturbances in Canada dur ing the Prince's visit were very considerable; and the Duke of Newcastle is reported to have taken home to England the intelligence of a desire on the part of the British Provinces to form a confederacy under one British vice roy. But this is a mistake. What they want is to unite with the free States of the North; and they cannot do it too soon, for revolution and war are now rife in Europe, and the chances are that Great Britain will be broken down in the irrepressible conflict. Canada ought therefore immediately to provide for its future. England has not the power to prevent the annexation of the British provinces, and, besides, peaceable secession is the principle of the age. What is good doctrine in Italy ought to be good in America. Canada, from her his tory and geographical position, belongs to the Northern States, just as much as "the kingdom of the Two Sicilies" belongs to Sardinia and a united Italy. The unity of the Italian States, and the unity of North American free States, are the problems of the time, to be worked out by "manifest destiny." The Toronto Leader, it will be seen, does not object to the new combination, but rather ob jects to our phraseology of "annexing British America." and says "the annexation will be in the other direction." We are practical. We do not dispute about words if our ideas arc carried out. "A rose will smell as sweet by any other name." The Canadians may call the new Union what they like?our annexation of them, or their annexation of the Yan kees?so that both are only united under one government. But there is one thing in the arrangement against which we will strenuously object, and that is the an nexation of the British islands. They have too many paupers, and are too heavily burthened with debt. Our contemporary anticipates "a now terri torial arrangement" from the fragments of our dismembered confederacy, and says that so far from overture!* for a union with Canada being repulsed, he promises there is "every likeli hood that they will receive a fair and candid consideration." This is all that we could ex pect him to say just now. but it is a decided step in advance. The London rost?the home organ of the British government- says Canada will henceforth hold the balance of po? this continent. The government org Canada gives further elucidation to tbc idea by showing how it is to be done, oven by union with our Northern States. The Leader of the 30th January gays:? " There is a feeling abroad in these provinces that wc should derive from a union many ad vantages that we do not now possess. There is an indefinite yearning after a higher stilus ? a larger share of nationality." How ebe can that yearning be gratified, or that status attain ed, but by union with the Northern States? Forever must these provinces be dragged at the tail of Great Britain till they assert their independence. The manner in which tho Judi ciary of Canada is now treated to an illustration of their degradation. But already one province wants to come in. "The largest vote," says the Isadtr, "in favor of the project would cotne from the peninsula of Upper Canada, where ?here is a feeling that the connection uith New York is the natural one, and that it is more profitable than any other that could be formed We are satisfied to take the provinces by instal ments?one at a time. But we are told that Lower Canuda has a horror of democratic insti tutions. and changes slowly, while she fears her religion would be in danger at our hinds. Can any greater protection be desired than the; French Catholic population of Louisiana have always enjoyed under this government? The religious liberty of all is fully guaranteed in our constitution. As to the opposition of the old French noblesse to republicanism, it would avail nothing in revolution. A little gentle outside pressure would quicken the action of the pro* ince, and soon make it all right Now that the South is rent from as, our destined expansion is northward, and nothing can arrest our progress. We are more than twenty millions. So much for one of our Canadian contempo raries. What says the other? The Globe assumes the name tone, and says, before the 4th of March eight or ten seceding States "will have organized a large military force, capable of defending themselves against any attack from federal troops." But supposing the new adminis tration to attempt the conquest of tbe South?what then? Our contemporary re plios by asking some sensible questions:? "WH1 such a contest pay? Will victory or de feat bring the greater trouble? Will not the present constitution be destroyed in either case? The ancient (ireek republic fell when one or two of the States conquered the rest." Tbe reason is plain: "Though the federal power might be continned, the independence of tbo States, their freedom of action at sepa rate aovereifnties, would be at an ead. The central government, having conquered by force of arm*, muet maintain* its ascend?tey bj the same means. Here, then, is a great military power, centralized and consolidated, the very evil that the wisest American statesmen have foreseen and dreaded and warned their eoun try men to resist to the last" This is common sense npd sound philosophy, and oar contem porary turns the argument to practical account by showing trom it the necessity of "two con federacies?a Northern and a Southern?peaoe ably established, each pursuing its own policy and enjoying its own peculiar institutions, with out the let or hindrance of the other." This is a very suggestive hint that when the Canadians take possession by surprise of im pregnable Quebec and other fortresses they must be allowed to quietly secedo on paying the mother country for the property. It is sig nificant in another point of view. The people of Canadi have now an interest in the North ern States, and do not desire to see them enter upon the suicidal game of Southern conquest, but rather to "pursue a career of annexation and aggrandizement northward and westward, Canada and the Lower Provinces being sup posed rife for admission into the tree confede racy of the North." These are cheering sentiments for th6 people of the free States, in view of their loss of the South, which now seems inevitable. Unlike the proud patricians of the lloinan republio, who saved the country by liberal concessions and guarantees to the plebeians when they se ceded from the city to Mons Sacer and com menccd founding a new empire; and unlike the 6till prouder aristocracy of England, who saved the British empire from the horrors of civil war by concessions to Ireland in 1829, the republicans, suddenly elevated to power, like all upstarts, are puffed up with a sense of their own importance, and will not bend before the storm which is sure to break them in the end. One of the leaders in Congress?Mr. Stevens, of Pennsylvania?on Tuesday last declared that "rather than give concessions he would see the government shattered into tea thousand atoms;" and this sentiment was not rebuked, but acquiesced in by all the republi can members of Congress, following the latest authoritative programme received from Spring field, to the effect that "Mr. Lincoln is not com mitted to the border State compromise, nor to any other; he stands immovably on the Chica go platform, and he will neither acquiesce in, nor advise his friends to acquiesce in, any com promise that surrenders an iota of it" There is every prospect, therefore, of the absorption by the new free State confederacy of the North American British provinces, to witi Smuire PujyulaJion Ity Miles. Ixst Centui. Canada F-aet SOI,980 890,261 otliada Wcii!!! 147,332 952,004 Now Nova Scotln aiid Breton?.... 18,716 .570,in lYinreKdward Island 2,134 M,?T8 looSS Ya~*Uund J*.? 2,000 Hudson Bay Territory 2,480,0C0 180 000 3,014,805 2,765,168 Here is a vast empire, whose area is far greater than that of the free States, and is nearly equal to all the States and Territories of our confederacy, North and South, and with* a population which ten years ago was more thau't^o millions and three-quarters, and is now fully four millions. The immigration to the Hudson Bay territory, stimulated by the gold discovery, Is immense, and the Canadian population alone is estimated at upwards o^ three millions. It is hardy and thrifty, and homogeneous with our own Anglo Saxon and Anglo-Celtic population?the very flower of the Caucasian race. In 1850 th?re were 56,214 natives of the United States in Canada; and the blood which prevails in our free States is now in a ratio of throo to one in the provinces. This we say without dis paragement of the French, wlio in arts and arms and vitality stand to-<1ay at the head of European nations. In language, religion and institutions British North America is almost identical with our free States. What, then, is to pre vent its union with the North? Out of its vast domain eight States, equal on an average to those of the South, might be constructed at once, leaving abundant territory for the erec tion of eight more at no distant day. There can be no doubt that the whole population of the provinces, with those of the freo States of the North, would -not at this moment fall short of twenty-five millions. If united in one government, the accessions of population from Europe would be immense, and Yankee activi ty would soon develope the dormant resources of the new empire. It would constitute a vast naval power, ruling triumphant in two oceans and controlling the commerce of the world. Mr. Seward, flattering alike the Northwest and Canada, has fixed the capital of the new northern confederacy at or near St. Paul, Minnesota, not far from the British line. But it is evident that the seat of empire will be New York, with the federal district of New Washington ten miles round it- New York, which, in spite of all gov ernmental or territorial changes, will main tain its position as the great ftee city of the New World?the centre and the entrepot of the commerce of three continents. Let Canada and the other British provinces prepare for their mighty destiny. Frk.k Nkokoks. ?Sixty free negroes, from North Carolina, bound North, pawed through Maryland the other day. Cause: the Southern secession excitement We may expect hundreds and thousands of such visiters before long. Let our abolition philanthropists make their ar rangements accordingly. Shall the poor negro, unless he be a fugitive slave, be allowed to starve? What says Parson Beechcr? Fi-orn Wanted in Court.?The late Secre. tary of War, J. B. Floyd* has been in dicted at Washington as one of the par ties, in the matter of those Indian Trust bonds, guilty of defrauding the Treasury the United States. Will he come into Court when called forT Doubtful. Having seceded from tho Cabinet on a point of honor, he may possibly secede from the Union on a point of safety. Had Mr. Buchanan only dis posed of his Cabinet Floyds. and Cobbs, and Thompsons, and all such disorganizers among his official retainers, two or three years ago, we dare say that this great country would have been saved from the humiliating spectacle of corruption, demoralization, discords, dissolu tion and revolution in which U now stands, to the astonishment and *hame of the civilized world. But Floyd ?this Immaculate Secretary Floyd, whose honor would not permit him to remain in the Cabinet, in consequence of his i lb*' the garrison at Fort Sumter should be left to take care of itself?this punctilious Floyd, we say, iadicted u a rogue, and sus pected as a traitor, must now prove himself an honest man, or make no more speeches reflect ing upon the Integrity of such matter-of-fact patriots as General Scott. Thk Chevalier Webb in a Raob.?-TV war like excitement among our Southern secession ists is described as a raging frenzy, especially among the Ore-eaters at Charleston. We ap prehend, however, that even Gen. Quattlebum is in a pacific traino of mind compared with the terrible wrath which has taken possession of the Chevalier Webb. Against Mr. Bu chanan this terrible wrath is particularly di rected. Thus the Chevalier declares the late conciliatory message of the President as "no more nor less than deliberate treason,' in be half of his "colaborers in the work of treason;" that he has been doing all in his power "to aid the rebels in their treason;'' that "he is as much a traitor as Gov. Pickens, of South Caro lina;" that, in fact, "Mr. Buchanan has perpe trated every act of treason within his power;" lias been guilty of "traitorous arrangements with the rebels;" "has done all he could to render treason successful," and so on to the end of a long chapter, which only a howling dervish could properly read. Satisfied of Mr. Buchanan's "complicity with the traitors,'1 the Chevalier Webb call* upon the House of Representatives for such mea sures as will strengthen the hands of Honest Abe Lincoln in the execution of the laws; and he calls especially for an uct providing for an ?xtra session of Congress early in March. To be sure, Mr. Buchanan, " iu league with the rebels," may veto all such proceedings; but then Congress may pass them over his head. It is thus very evident that the Chevalier Webb is literally thirsting for blood. Nothing now will satisfy his bellige rent aspirations except the command of an army for the conquest of South Carolina. He has boon for Bome years past a church mem ber, under the regular instructions of the gos pel of peace; but the old Adam in him is stronger than the gospel, and he is "spoiling for a fight" Therefore, if the incoming admin istration shall determine upon sending a de tachment of Wide Awakes for the recapture of Fort Moultrie, let the Chevalier Webb be ap pointed to head the forlorn hope. Armed with his mahogany stocked pistols, a Kentucky rifle and Potter's big bowle knife, the terrible Chevalier Webb is the man to haul down the Palmetto flag. Demand koii Cheap Gas and Cheap Uem ciion in Bkooelyn.?In Brooklyn a cheap and good O^era has been established; but in the City of Churches the price of gas and religion renders both inaccessible to the poor, and oppressive to all classes. The enormous rents of pews and the high salaries of the clergy shut out from public worship an im mense number of the population. Light, bo precious to the mind and to the senses, is thus denied to the people by the heavy tax Imposed upon it. The complaints are universal about both kinds of light. As to gaslight, the subject which comes more immediately within the scope of newspaper comment, we have received numerous commu nications. Formerly gas was thirty-five oenta per hundred cubic feet in Brooklyn. When a new company was organized, the price was then reduced by the old company to twenty-five cents; but, strange to relate, the gas bills became nearly doubled in amount Whether this was effected by cheating at the meter, or by the inferior quality of the gas. which causes double the quantity to be con s'umed, there appears to be no doubt of the fact itself. One gentleman recently, in paying a bill exorbitantly high, observed to the managers of the concern that he hoped they would not reduce the price of gas again. It is notorious that sometimes the men who are sent to examine the meter never come at all, and sometimes they do not take the trouble of look ing at it with a light, but enter in the book a certain number of feet by guesswork. In very many cases, where little or no gas has been burned, outrageous bills of from seven to nine dollars are furnished; and when these parties, indignant at the fraud, put all the burners on full blast and consume all the gas they can, by way of experiment, they find their bills actu ally less than before. The meters are for the most part humbugs, of no value whatever, par ticularly the wet meters. Every man ought to have a dry meter, which does not admit of the same amount of cheating, provided it is cor rectly made. But the best remedy is to break down the monopoly by encouraging the new company, and estibliwhing a wholesome com petition. As it is now, the citizens are literally robbed by fraudulent ga* bills. American Character.?A very striking pe culiarity in the character of the Ameri can people is the facility with which they adapt themselves to every change in existing circumstances, and there is perhaps no better illustration of this than the readiness with which they are now preparing to meet the altered condition of affairs which the political crisis of the hour is rapidly has tening on. Whatever depression in trade and finance has overtaken the country heretofore, the people have always accommodated them selves to the exigencies of the times, met the brunt of misfortune bravely, and recuperated more speedily than any other community in the world could have done under similar circum stances. And we see now how readily they are adapting themselves to the unprecedented con dition of things as they have cotne about. Al ready the products cl the South are finding their way to New York by tho interior rontes; their Western modes of transit by river and railroad are availed of to bring cotton to the Atlantic seaboard the moment that communication with (he Southern ports is obstructed by the hostile movements of the Southern secessionists. Even the Grand Trunk Iiailroad of Canada Li im pressed into the service of transportation for Southern produce to this city; and so great is the adaptation o( our people to any change of circumstances which may urise, that we should not be surprised If, before the present troubles are settled? that is, if they are to be settled ut all?the whole system of transportation from the South were to be radically changed; or, in the event ot a ftnal separation of the two sec lions of the country, that such measures would be adopted as would leave tho commercial in tercourse of the North and South unobstructed to any material degree, and would preserve the Mercantile prosperity of the country in tact. Of course, in either event, the interests of the merchant* of ?ho North and the planter* of the South would be considerably affected for A time; but In the end It is quite probable judging from the "irrepressible" energy of ow people and the adaptability of their nature to every new phase of things?that the general interests of the country would experience no very perceptible injury. The Foi/bth or Febhuakt.?The coming 4th of February will be a remarkable day, from the events that are appointed to come off at that time. First, there Is the Convention of i delegates from the seceding Southern States at 1 Montgomery, Alabama, to arrange the basis of a Southern confederacy, which is to be knows | henceforth as the United States of America South. On the same day a Convention of delegates from the border States, aod suoh Northern free States as have decided to meet with them, for the purpose of adopting suoh measures of compromise as may insure the perpetuity of the Union, will assemble at Wash ington. Much is expected of these two conven tions. But while these important events are about to transpire in this country, the 4th of February is destined to witness another novel scene in Europe, for on that day the disous sions of the Legislative Assembly of Pranoe are"to be open to the public, by the late decree of the Emperor, and the press is to be freed from those restrictions which heretofore ham pered it and crippled its liberty. The day will then be memorable on both sides of the Atlantic for the inauguration of events involv ing grave questions of the rights of the peoplm Great Timks in Brooklyn.?Our friends across the water are unusually elated just now. They have not only erected, fitted and fur nished a new Opera House, but they have suo* ceoded in getting a first rate troupe of artists to sing in it, and very largo audiences to pay for the gratification of hearing the best works of the modern Italian repertoire. Brooklyn, not to put too fine a point upon it, feels inclined to crow over New York, and has just cause for so doing. This week Brooklyn has the three regu lar nights (Monday, Wednesday and Friday), while the habituis of Irving place have to con tent themselves with Tuesday and Thursday. Wednesday night in Brooklyn is especially de voted to church meetings; but it would appear, from the fact that the receipts of the Opera were greater on that night than ever, that the good people of Brooklyn have gone over to the world, the flesh, the devil and the " Trova tore," and that the religious party has been whipped out of the field. Not only do the young men and maidens of Brooklyn talk about the Opera, Colson, Hinkley, Brignoli, Verdi, Mercadante, Muzio & Co. continually, but staid fathers of families, heavy merchants and pro minent bankers, have become learned in the divine art; they speak with glowing pride about "our" Opera House, and ''our" artists, and mention New York in terms of magnani mous commiseration. When the citizen of Brooklyn, after finishing his daily avocation in the metropolis, crosses the East river, he imme diately assumes a loftier position than he has hitherto held. He arrays himself in the "full dress" prescribed by the managers of the Prince of Wales' ball, calk a coach, and, with Madame and the younger branches of the family, goes in state to the Opera, ne finds the house full of people, all en grande tenue, and all devoted to the Opera. He delaroe hat it is charming, delightful, divine, and goes home with his head full of roulades, cadenzas, polaccas, barcaroles, romanzas, and musical morceaux of all kinds. The next day he is able to say with truth to his friends in Wall street: We support the Opera on our side of the river; you would have none at all were it not for us. Come over to our house if j ou wish to see the Opera sustained; and so on. All this is very curious, very entertaining and veiy profitable for all parties, more especially Muzio & Co., who will undoubtedly make all the hay they can while the Brooklyn sun shines. The effect of the Operatic furore in Brooklyn has already begun to tell on this side of the river, and there are hopeful signs of a revival in Irving place. When Brooklyn droops, New York will be ready for an excite ment about the new opera, or the competition between the rival prime donne, Hinkley and Elena. The Opera reason commenced under very unfavorable auspices, but it lias, thank* to Brooklyn, the very best prospects. The I>rpjfAi, Dkath or a Washington Or gan.?The pap of tlio federal treasury upon which that worthless Washington newspaper party organ?the Constitution?subsisted having been taken away, it has died the dismal death of a pauper. Its fussy and conceited editor, Brown, made the fatal mistake that in under taking to be the lackey he became the master of the administration Brown became too big for his breeches. No wonder. A sprig of IrUh nobility, metamorphosed at London into an English cockney, and then a dL-ciple of Wall street Puritanism, it is not surprising that h> should next turn up a rampant Southern seces sionist, doubtless longing, like John Mitchel, for "an Alabama cotton pluntation, w-ll stocked with good fat niggers.'' And so Brown Is to go down into the more genial atmosphor"? of a Southern confederacy. The New Yoiuc Sknathihiiii*.?The 5th of this month is the day fixed upon by our State Legislature for the election of a I'nited Stale* Senator, to fill the place which Mr. Seward will vacate on the 4th of March, to tak<- hit seat as premier in Lincoln's Cabinet, and the excitement among the politician** of the repub lican party is hourly growing more intense. Albany Is in a small fever about that momen tous question, and the business of the State U for the time submerged in the controversy be tween the friends of the rival candidates. la fact, the condition of the country In the present eventful crisis?the question whether there w'll be a United States at all to represent in th* Senate?is forgotten, in view of the prospects of the contending aspirants for the chair of . Mr. Seward. Mr Rahkt's Exninrno* ? H\ id v art tomcat in another col time it wlli bo aeet. that IUr?y, the ?rn?t subjugator of the cqulno apecloa, give* h s farewell per formiuico at the Academy of Music to-morrow. Half tb# proceed! will be donated to the A'rlum far Widows ao<i Orphans?a fact which wtU fill thehoa?e fuller than or*. If *urh a thing be possible On this occasion Mr Rarer will eihtb't bin okill 0? thi> celebrated :\tht n? horse I'eacock, Mr. Steward a Arabia..! ?te"da, unci Mr Uiateb got'a ratchen atallion. A prett, t.ugh but'o la 3 c ted. Ms ,t 'im F BMvtft, of this City, wm Ilarnna I tr r'-pondrnt laiei) stated to have been detained ia Cubs b; reason of so-ne pecuniary difficulties, ha*, we are gUd to learn, net ef l-een under any such reetraint but, no Uie cootrary he has succeeded in re< overng hi;; WOfeftf frr,m the ha> .da of unfaithful agwt*. sod ? about return icg, elepbaaia sad all. to the l wn.i sum* w .Ui 'lf'ng rotora

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